Russia is the largest state in the world. It is washed by the waters of three oceans, on its territory there are a variety of natural zones - from the arctic deserts to the subtropics.
Russia has a rich, glorious history, though abounding in tragic pages.
And how did the name of the state arise, what does the word "Russia" in general mean?
Great Rus is the state of the Eastern Slavs
In some historical documents of the eraThe French King Louis I of the pious and Byzantine emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, a large state is mentioned in the middle reaches of the Dnieper. This state was called Rus' (Russian land). Its main cities were Kiev, Chernigov and Pereslavl (South).
On the origin of the term "Rus" existsSet of hypotheses. Most scientists hold the opinion that this name comes from some ancient word meaning "water". In evidence, they refer to the huge role played by water bodies in the life of those long and forested areas (transport, trade routes, food sources). That is, "Rus" is something like "a place rich in water".
In documents of a later era,The names of a number of other cities, such as Vyshgorod, Belgorod, Trypillya, Korsun, Kanev. On them it is possible to determine the approximate boundaries of Ancient Rus. They included the territories of many Slavic tribes (glades, drevlyane, vyatichi, krivichi, etc.), as well as Finno-Ugric tribes - chudi, weights.
By the beginning of the XIII century, the territory of Russia included also the Novgorod and East-Suzdal lands.
At what point did the official name "Russia"
As a result of a long period of feudalismFragmentation, internecine strife, and especially because of the Mongol-Tatar invasion, there was a sharp weakening of ties between different parts of Ancient Rus. In toponymy there were such concepts as "White Russia", "Little Russia", "Chervona (that is, Red) Russia". It was then that the very concept of "Russian" emerged, which denoted the nationality of a person.
Grand Prince of Moscow Ivan III at the end of the XV centuryFirst began to call himself the Sovereign of All Russia. And after about 100 years, the first mention of the term "Russia" appeared, which meant "a state populated by Russians".
Although for a long time, mainly such names as "Rus", "Russian land", "Moscow State" were used.
By the middle of the XVII century, when the territoryThe state has significantly increased due to the accession of lands with an ethnically non-Russian population, the name "Russia" has been used much more often. And since the beginning of the XVIII century, in the era of Peter the Great, our country officially became known as the Russian Empire.