In May 1945, after the end of the Great Patriotic War, Germany ceased to be a single state.
The countries participating in the anti-Hitler coalition decided to divide the country into zones of occupation.
Subsequently, in the territory populated by the Germans, two independent states were created - the FRG and the GDR.
Occupation of Germany
At the end of May 1945, the territory of the formerNazi Germany was divided into several parts. Austria left the empire. Alsace and Lorraine returned under the auspices of France. Czechoslovakia received back Sudetenland. Statehood was restored in Luxembourg.
Part of the territory of Poland, annexed by the Germans in 1939, returned to its composition. The eastern part of Prussia was divided between the USSR and Poland.
The rest of Germany was dividedAllied to four zones of occupation, where the Soviet, British, American and French military authorities exercised control. Countries that took part in the occupation of German lands agreed to conduct a coordinated policy, the main principles of which were the denationalization and demilitarization of the former German empire.
Education of Germany
A few years later, in 1949, on the territory ofAmerican, British and French zones of occupation, the Federal Republic of Germany was proclaimed - the Federal Republic of Germany, whose capital was Bonn. Western politicians thus planned to create in this part of Germany a state built on a capitalist model, which could become a springboard for a possible war with the communist regime.
Americans provided a great help to the newBourgeois German state. Thanks to this support, Germany quickly began to turn into an economically developed power. In the 1950s they even talked about the "German economic miracle".
The country needed a cheap labor force, the main source of which was Turkey.
How did the German Democratic Republic
The response to the creation of the Federal Republic of Germany was the proclamationThe constitution of another German republic - the GDR. This happened in October 1949, five months after the formation of the FRG. In this way, the Soviet state decided to resist the aggressive intentions of former allies and create a kind of stronghold of socialism in Western Europe.
Constitution of the German Democratic RepublicProclaimed its citizens democratic freedoms. In this document, the leading role of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany was also fixed. For a long time, the Soviet Union has provided the GDR government with political and economic assistance.
However, in terms of industrial growth in the GDR,Who embarked on the socialist path of development, lagged far behind its western neighbor. But this did not prevent East Germany from becoming a developed industrial country, where also intensive development of agriculture. After a series of violent democratic transformations in the GDR, the unity of the German nation was restored, on October 3, 1990, the FRG and the GDR became a single state.