In modern media, France is often referred to as the FifthRepublic, and this somewhat poetic name gives rise to a number of questions: why exactly this serial number was assigned, why France, and where then the preceding Republics - First, Second, Third and Fourth.
France to the Republic
After in the 10th century France was electedThe first king of the Capetian family, this country continued to be a monarchy until the end of the 18th century. In 1328, the throne of the dynasty of Valois, and in 1589 it was replaced by the younger branch of the Capetians - the Bourbons.
Throughout the centuries,Rather complex relationships between classes. Already by the middle of the 18th century it became clear that the royal power discredited itself in many aspects, the nobility was ruined or mired in idle life, the bourgeoisie demanded new privileges, and the peasants dragged on a beggarly existence.
The increasing differentiation between classes andThe gradual lag of France from its neighbors led to an increase in social tension and resulted in the Great French Revolution, the beginning of which is considered the capture of the Bastille on July 14, 1789.
Republic from the First to the Fourth
Further in the history of France began the period of the Republics,Each has a serial number corresponding to the version of the Constitution of the state. The First Republic was established on September 21, 1792, the day of the overthrow of King Louis XVI. It existed until 1804, when Napoleon Bonaparte proclaimed himself emperor.
Since different political forces have seenThe development of France in its own way, came a protracted period of power change, lasting about a century and a half. From 1804 to 1815, France remained an empire, after the deposition of Napoleon, the heir of the Bourbon dynasty, Louis XVIII, was enthroned.
In July 1830, a revolution occurred again, andThe king abdicated. The Second Republic existed from 1848 to 1852, but the constitution was imperfect during this period, as it did not help to resolve the differences between the president and the National Assembly. In 1852, France again became a constitutional monarchy led by Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, this period of history is called the Second French Empire.
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was the nephew of the famed emperor of France.
Further on the course of events influenced the strengthening of Germany,The new emperor was deposed, and the period from 1870 to 1914 in France is called the Third Republic. In this period of time, there was an event that affected the course of the whole history - an alliance was signed with Great Britain, Antanta formed.
The military and political situation on its territories outside Europe, in particular in Algeria, had a significant impact on the history of France.
Already after the Second World War, in connection with the change in the alignment of forces in the world and the new crisis of power in the country, the French Constitution was amended, and the period of the Fourth French Republic began.
The events that served as the reasons for the revisionThe ongoing system, there were incessant political crises and an aggravated situation in Algeria, when the military withdrew from obedience to the government. After the new Constitution of France was adopted in 1958, the country was tacitly called the Fifth Republic by the number of the edition of the main legal document of the state.
This period of history continues to this day, and so farThere is no reason to believe that the numerical "fifth", so beloved by journalists and reviewers, will soon be replaced by the "sixth". The main differences between the Constitution of the new edition and the previous one are the president's extended powers, he had no right to dissolve the parliament earlier. However, the term of his stay at the country's main post was reduced from seven to five years.