Thunderstorms - bright and breathtaking atmosphericphenomenon. In temperate latitudes, they occur about 10-15 times during the year, in the immediate vicinity of the equator on land - from 80 to 160 days a year are thunderstorms.
Over the oceans, they occur much less often.
Thunderstorms are satellites of atmospheric fronts, under which the warm air masses are displaced by cold ones.
The storm begins with a huge air column,Which forms a rapidly swelling high white cloud. Storm clouds are real giants, their magnitude can reach 10 km. Its lower part is flat, but it sharply spreads up and along the sides.
When the upper boundary of such a giant cloudReaches the stratosphere, it begins to flatten and takes the form of a kind of anvil. A sudden, hurricane wind begins, sometimes turning into a flurry. Thunder squalls can cause serious damage. There were times when they overturned railroad cars weighing more than 16 tons. The most terrible thunderstorms with squalls occur usually in the warm season.
Lightning is a powerful electricDischarge in the air, arising between two thunderclouds or between a cloud and the earth's surface. The power of such a charge is enormous, so the air around the lightning instantly heats up to a very high temperature and sharply expands. As a result of this expansion, there is a strong sound wave, which is called thunder.
Multiple and powerful lightning discharges canForm a continuous rumble and noise. This is because the sound wave reflects from the clouds, the surface of the earth, buildings and other objects, creating multiple echoes and extending thunder.
A flash of lightning spreads in the air withThe speed of light, so it is visible almost immediately after the discharge, and the roar of expanding air masses flies by one kilometer on average in 3 seconds. If lightning and thunder follow one after another continuously, we can say that the storm is near. If the flashes of lightning are much ahead of the thunder, the thunderstorm is at a certain distance from the observer. Accordingly, the farther thunderstorm, the longer the thunder rolls after a lightning can not be heard.