The first Russian ruler, who replaced the royal title prince, was Ivan the Terrible.
His personality and actions are estimated by historians in different ways. Someone suggests that the king was a talented and visionary reformer.
Others see in his work a bloody tyranny that plunged the country into a period of harsh repression.
The first Russian Tsar
When Ivan the Terrible came to power, Russianthe state could not boast of any significant territory or economic success. At the beginning of the XVI century, the population did not exceed nine million people. The southern border of the state was exposed to attacks of nomadic peoples. Institute of Public Administration in desperate need of transformation and reform. The solution can only be a strong autocratic power.
Childhood of the future king passed under the watchfulthe control of trustees. From an early age Ivan was surrounded by scheming courtiers warring clans who sought to occupy a dominant position and to receive princely privileges. Self-will of the boyars, who watched the young Ivan the Terrible, developed in him the suspicion and distrust of the people.
When Ivan came of age, heI promised myself once and for all put an end to the machinations of the oligarchy and to the extreme limit the power of the boyars. In January 1547 a solemn ceremony of the construction of Prince Ivan to the throne. Macarius Metropolitan solemnly laid on the young king's head hat Monomakh, which represented the highest authority. Since then, the political weight of the ruler in the country and in the international arena has increased considerably.
The activities of Ivan the Terrible
Sudden and radical changes in higher personalityin a state indicative of the ambition and scale of Ivan his government plans. Warring knights groups received a clear signal that the Emperor was going to turn weak and decentralized state into a powerful state. Tsar Ivan the Terrible title given the opportunity to apply for the role of the successor of the ancient traditions of the Roman Empire.
At first, Ivan was set togradual liberal reforms. Backed by the closest circle of associates, the king held a number of events that were to update and strengthen the power of the country. The changes were made and legislative areas: Ivan the Terrible introduced a new Code of Law, which gave the peasant communities the right to self-government, and also allow farmers transition from one host to another.
Considerable attention is paid upgrading kingArmy. When it strelets army received firearms, which in those days was a rarity even for many developed European countries. When Ivan the Terrible began to rapidly develop artillery. Military reforms were caused by the necessity of conducting an active foreign policy. In this area of government activity Ivan the Terrible has made impressive progress. He won a victory over the Kazan and Crimean Khanate, when it Russian state began to take over the vast territory of Siberia.