The first Russian ruler, who replaced the prince's title to the royal, was Ivan the Terrible.
His personality and actions are estimated by historians in different ways. Someone believes that the tsar was a talented and far-sighted reformer.
Others see in his work only a bloody tyranny that plunged the country into a period of severe repression.
The First Russian Tsar
When Ivan the Terrible came to power, RussianThe state could not boast of any significant territory or economic successes. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the country's population did not exceed nine million people. The southern border of the state was raided by nomadic peoples. Institutions of state administration were in dire need of reform and reform. Only a strong autocratic power could become an outlet.
The childhood of the future tsar passed under the vigilantControl of guardians. From the young years of Ivan surrounded the intrigues of the warring clan of courtiers, who sought to occupy the dominant position and obtain princely privileges. The self-will of the boyars, which the young Ivan the Terrible observed, developed in him suspicion and distrust towards people.
When Ivan Vasilyevich came of age, heGave himself the right to end once and for all the intrigues of the oligarchy and limit the power of the boyars to the limit. In January 1547, the solemn ceremony of erecting Prince Ivan to reign was held. Metropolitan Macarius solemnly laid on the head of the young king the cap of Monomakh, which personified the supreme power. Since that time, the political weight of the ruler within the country and in the international arena has increased significantly.
Activity of Ivan the Terrible
Sharp and radical change in the status of a higher personIn the state testified to Ivan's ambitiousness and the scale of his state plans. The boyar factions, fighting among themselves, received a clear signal that the Emperor was going to turn a weak and decentralized state into a powerful state. The royal title gave Ivan the Terrible the opportunity to claim the role of successor to the ancient traditions of the Roman Empire.
At first, Ivan Vasilyevich wasPhased implementation of liberal reforms. Supported by the closest circle of associates, the king held a series of events that were to update and strengthen power in the country. The changes also affected the area of legislation: Ivan the Terrible introduced a new judicial code that gave peasant communities the right to self-government, and also allowed the transfer of peasants from one master to another.
The tsar paid much attention to rearmamentArmy. With him, the archer army received firearms, which at that time was a curiosity, even for many developed European countries. At Ivan the Terrible, artillery began to develop at an accelerated rate. Military reforms were caused by the need for an active foreign policy. In this sphere of state activity, Ivan the Terrible achieved impressive success. He defeated the Kazan and Crimean Khanates, with him the Russian state began to annex vast territories in Siberia.