Antarctica - a continent covered by ice, not only, but also mysteries.
Even his discovery of the names of pioneers are still controversial among scientists. Someone thinks that the mainland has been described in 16-17 century, someone adheres to the version of the Russian pioneers.
So, who discovered Antarctica.
The discovery of Antarctica: the official version
According to the official version, the continent was actuallyIt opened in 1820, when 16 (28) On January expedition led by the great Russian officers, sailors Mikhail Lazarev and Thaddeus Bellingshausen saw nearby unknown land. This land was sixth, the last of the outdoor continents Earth - Antarctica.
The distance traveled by boats "Peace" and "East", amounted to 100 thousand km.
Members of the expedition was able to do what before was considered impossible.
After all, even in 1775 the famous explorerJames Cook, who was unable to break through the ice (he stopped about two hundred kilometers from Antarctica), wrote in his diary that no one will be able to move to the south on him.
Landing in Antarctica Russian expedition has not made, and that is one of the causes of disputes on the opening of the continent.
Lazarev and Bellingshausen expedition lasted a little over two years (751 days), and passed their way was equal to two round the world trip.
The discovery of Antarctica: conjectures and assumptions
The version of the existence of the continent expressedeven in the second century AD Greek geographer and astronomer Ptolemy. However, his suggestion for centuries were not confirmed by scientific facts.
At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Portuguese ledwith Amerigo Vespucci reached the island of South Georgia, but returned because of the extreme cold, which could not bear none of the members of the flotilla. In 1775, James Cook was deep in the Atlantic waters, but to break through the ice cold and he could not close to the mainland, and was also forced to retreat. Although he was convinced of the existence of Antarctica.
Who is the first set foot on the ground, and opened the
Recently becoming popular approvalthat land is not opened until it did not set foot man. Hence another date "discovery" of the sixth continent - January 23, 1895, when the Norwegians Christensen (captain "Antarctic" ship) and Carlsen Borchgrevink (Science teacher) reached the coast of Antarctica and it landed on the ground.
Their expedition was able to get samples of minerals anddescribe the aurora. A few years later Borchgrevink returned to Antarctica, but as head of the expedition on the ship called "Southern Cross."