The expression "Tushino thief" today often referred to as a common noun, forgetting that it is a nickname originally was an impostor False Dmitry II of, tried to seize power in the Time of Troubles.
The emergence of a new Falsdmitry
From 1605 by 1606 the Russian tsar was False Dmitry I(Gregory Otrepyev). After the death of Otrepiev was replaced by another impostor who was even outwardly similar to its predecessor. On hand False Dmitry II was the fact that the deposed "king" had a lot of followers among Muscovites. There were rumors allegedly Emperor miraculously escaped from the "wicked boyars."
In the spring of 1607 he appeared in new LzhedmitryStarodub Seversky, and at first pretended to be Andrew Boyar Nude, promising the imminent appearance of Dmitri. But as time passed, and the king did not come. When the people demanded an answer, which lies Dmitry, the impostor had to change strategy. Together with his accomplices, he inspired Starodubtsev, though he is the Emperor who survived, and even reproached the citizens for failing to recognize the true king.
Origin of False Dmitry II still causes controversy historians, as it is for certain not known neither his name nor the date of birth.
Tushino period adventure
From Starodub Seversky False Dmitry II reachedMoscow, in May 1608 under the breaking of the army Shumsky Bolkhov. By the summer of Lzhedmitry settled in the vicinity of Moscow - in the village of Tushino. That's the name of this settlement and the impostor was nicknamed Tushino thief. Interestingly, while the word "thief" was somewhat different from the present. "Thief" called any fraudster, cheat, and a deceiver.
By the fall of 1608 Tushino thief surrenderedalmost without a fight many cities, but he did not manage to capture Moscow. Soon power Falsdmitry shaken - people refused to put up with the strengthening of serfdom and the predatory actions of the new ruler. Part of its territories Lzhedmitry lost, and many of his supporters went out to Sigismund III - the Polish king. Finally, the Tushino camp eventually collapsed, and the impostor was forced to flee to Kaluga.
In Tushino camp, which was locatedFalse Dmitry II of residence, operated its public institutions: the Boyar Duma, orders. From the enemy camp was protected by wooden walls and ramparts.
Sunset Tushino thief
I began to convince people in Kaluga in Lzhedmitrythat Sigismund III aims to capture and Russia to establish on its territory Catholicism, and only he - the king Dmitry - Poles will not give Russian land and die for the Orthodox faith. This statement resonated in the hearts of people - from the impostor reappeared many supporters among the north-western cities. In this period of his adventures Lzhedmitry even got a new nickname, consonant still - "Kaluga thief."
In August 1610 Lzhedmitry made anotherattempt to capture Moscow, but was defeated in Kolomna. pretender Kaluga camp increasingly drawn into confrontation Polish invaders, many former supporters left the False Dmitry, and December 21, 1610 he was killed by a Tatar Peter Urusov while hunting. False Dmitry II Time has ended, but he stayed in the history of Tushino - one of the most famous adventurers of his time.