Leukocytes are white blood cells performing a protective function. They have a nucleus and exceed the size of red cells - nuclear-free erythrocytes.
Their lifespan is several days.
Normally, the number of leukocytes in a person's bloodFluctuates within the limits of 4-9 x 10 ^ 9 / l. An increase in the level of leukocytes is called leukocytosis, and a decrease is called leukopenia. Leukocytosis can be physiological and reactive, indicating a pathology.
From what increases and decreases the number of leukocytes in the blood
Physiological increase in the level of leukocytes inBlood is observed 2-3 hours after ingestion (digestive leukocytosis), psychoemotional stress, hot or cold baths, intense muscular stress and pain syndrome, in women before menstruation and in the second half of pregnancy. Reactive leukocytosis is typical for infectious diseases and inflammatory processes. Leukopenia can occur with certain infections, medication, exposure to ionizing radiation and other factors.
What are the leukocytes
All leukocytes have high mobility. On the granularity of the cell cytoplasm, they are divided into granulocytes (granular) and agranulocytes (non-grained). If the granules are stained with acid paints (eosin and others) in pink, such cells are called eosinophils, if they are stained with blue (basic blue) blue basophils. Finally, neutrophils are characterized by pink-violet coloring of the granules when stained with neutral dyes.
To agranulocytes consisting of an oval nucleus andUngrainous cytoplasm, include monocytes and lymphocytes. Monocytes are formed in the bone marrow, enter the foci of inflammation and phagocytose the bacteria. Lymphocytes are formed in the thymus gland, stem cells of the bone marrow and spleen. They are needed for the production of antibodies and the implementation of immune responses.
Percentage ratio of all types of leukocytesIs reflected in the leukocyte formula. The number of individual types of white blood cells increases with certain diseases. Thus, the level of lymphocytes increases with pertussis and typhoid, monocytes - with malaria, neutrophils - with pneumonia and other infectious diseases. Eosinophils have an antihistamine effect, so their number increases with allergic reactions, hay fever, bronchial asthma. The characteristic shifts of the leukocyte formula help to establish an accurate diagnosis.