Library, the repository of wisdom and testimonies of history, as if born again today. Thanks to the new forms of learning libraries keep pace with the times to attract new visitors.
Now, in the library, you can not only take home a book or work in the reading room, but also to listen to the lecture, see an exhibition, take part in a master class.
Sometime in the early days of its existence, public libraries also enjoyed great popularity.
Publicly, that is open to the public,libraries have become at once. In ancient times, the knowledge embodied in a particular medium, cost is very expensive. Knowledge itself was intended not for everyone: only the rulers of countries, priests and high-ranking officials could read. media - papyrus, parchment, clay tablets - also had great value as a result of labor-intensive manufacturing process or the high cost of materials.
Treasures of ancient civilizations
The most ancient known libraries consideredthe library of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal. It was set up in the capital of Nineveh state in VII. BC. e., in the royal palace, and it served, in addition to the storage of useful knowledge and literary works, and even the State Archives. This huge library, gave the historical science priceless evidence of life in ancient Mesopotamia, of course, was not public.
The famous Library of Alexandria in Egypt,founded in the III century BC, it was more accessible for a wide range of visitors. As the largest library in the ancient world, it is in the modern sense was more like a scientific academy or university lived here, engaged in its research and teaching academics from different countries. In 237, the main building of the Library of Alexandria died in the fire after a series of endless wars and raids the Romans.
The Greek word
In highly developed civilization of the Egyptians Greeksborrowed the form of papyrus scrolls, books, and then the device is large depositories. The word "library" comes from the Greek word "Bible" - the book and "tech" - storage. The ruler Pisistratus of Athens gathered a rich collection of books, which is then presented to his native city: so there was the first public library in Greece.
Roman culture has its roots in ancientGreece. From there she came to Rome, the fashion for private libraries: many politicians, public figures, and just rich people collected books in their estates. Their book collections were open to friends, disciples and admirers.
Julius Caesar Ideas
The idea of creating a public library in RomeIt belonged to Julius Caesar, who became an unwitting culprit for the destruction of the library at Alexandria. However, to realize his plan Caesar had no time: the first Roman public library was founded five years after his death in 39 BC. e. Guy Assini Pollio, a former soldier, and after a public figure.
The public library was established with fundsobtained from the spoils of war, and was placed in the temple of Liberty in the Atrium. The first public library has become a platform for reading new works of criticism and discussion, speeches. Creating such a library was of great cultural importance: because they have access to the treasures of readers of literature, which could not afford to build their own personal library.