In the biography of Joseph Stalin, the "leader of the peoples", there are quite vague episodes that cause controversy among historians. One of them concerns the question of the actual birthday of Stalin.
During the life of the leader of the Soviet Union, it was believed that he was born on December 21, 1879.
However, there is evidence that Stalin was actually born a year earlier.
When was Stalin born?
Directories, encyclopedias and dictionaries of the SovietThe times contain indications that Joseph Stalin was born on December 21, 1879. All jubilee celebrations during the life of the leader of the nation were tied precisely to this date.
And yet there is a document where it is indicated completelyAnother date for Stalin's appearance. It is a question of the metric book of the Assumption Church of the city of Gori, where information about the born and the dead was recorded. The book preserved the record that on December 6, 1878, the Orthodox Christians Vissarion and Catherine Dzhugashvili had a son, named Joseph. A few days later the boy was baptized in the same church, as also a corresponding entry was made.
How to explain this discrepancy in dates? It turns out that in fact, Stalin (Dzhugashvili) was born a year before the officially recognized date.
Historians have numerousThe questionnaires that Stalin's aides and his secretaries filled out. There is no doubt that the date put there - December 21, 1879 - was agreed with Stalin. But in fact the reliability of the metric record was also high enough in its time. In addition, other sources were found that confirm the church record.
In June 1894, Joseph Dzhugashvili receivedCertificate of the end of the course of the religious school, located in the city of Gori. As indicated in this document, its owner was born on December 6, 1878. It is hardly possible here to talk about the error of those who wrote out the certificate.
One of the valuable sources to shedLight on the biography of Stalin, - the archives of the police department of Russia. The Gendarmerie kept a constant watch on those citizens who were considered unreliable. A special dossier was compiled for each revolutionary.
The documents of the gendarmerie agency contain data on the date of birth of Dzhugashvili - December 6, 1878, which fully corresponds to the record in the church book.
The mystery of the personality of Joseph Stalin
In 1920, Stalin personally filled in a questionnaire forOne of the Swedish newspapers published in Stockholm. The year of birth is 1878. Two years later, a short article was published, where some facts of the biography of Joseph Stalin, who at that time was at the head of the party, were set out. The questionnaire in question is considered to be the only autobiographical document written by Stalin himself. All other questionnaires, as a rule, were filled by his assistants.
Researchers of life and activity I.V. Stalin noted that in the mid-1920s, 1878 was disappearing from his biographical documents (See: Journal of the Izvestia of the Central Committee of the CPSU, "When the Birth of IV Stalin", I. Kitaev, L. Moshkov, A. Chernev, November 1990). The official date of birth of the country's leader is December 21, 1879. How and why was the new legend born? What caused this replacement? The materials available to historians do not shed light on this question. Obviously, in order to uncover the secret, new research and painstaking work in the archives will be needed.