The teaching of children in the Soviet school was not designedOnly to teach them to read, count, write, give the basics of various sciences, but also to form them as personalities, to bring up worthy members of society. Against the background of acquiring knowledge of the laws of nature, thinking and society, labor skills, social skills, strong communist views and beliefs evolved.
But all this is true only as applied to the entire era of Soviet education.
At different stages of its formation and development, the situation developed somewhat differently.
Formation of Soviet education
You can not talk about any virtuesSoviet education system, not understanding how, when and where it came from. The basic principles of education for the near future were formulated as early as 1903. At the Second Congress of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party it was stated that education should be universal and free for all children under 16, regardless of gender. In addition, it is necessary to eliminate class and national schools, as well as to separate the school from the church. November 9, 1917 is the day of the establishment of the State Commission on Education, which was supposed to develop and monitor the whole system of education and culture of the vast country of the Soviets. The Regulation "On the Single Labor School of the RSFSR", dated October 1918, provided for mandatory attendance by all citizens of the country aged from 8 to 50 years who could not read and write yet. The only thing you could choose - in which language to learn to read and write (Russian or native).
At that time, most of the working population wasIlliterate. The country of the Soviets was considered highly lagging behind Europe, where general education for all was introduced almost 100 years earlier. Lenin believed that the ability to read and write could give an impetus to every person to "improve their economy and their state."
By 1920, more than 3 million people had learned to read and write. The census of the same year showed that more than 40 percent of the population older than 8 years can read and write.
The 1920 census was incomplete. It was not carried out in Byelorussia, the Crimea, Transcaucasia, the North Caucasus, Podolia and Volyn provinces, and a number of localities of Ukraine.
Radical changes awaited the education system in1918-1920. The school was separated from the church, and the church from the state. The teaching of any creed was banned, boys and girls were now studying together, and now there was nothing to pay for the lessons. At the same time, they began to create a system of preschool education, revised the rules for admission to higher educational institutions.
In 1927, the average training time for people over 9 years was slightly more than a year, in 1977 - almost 8 full years.
By the 1930s, illiteracy as a phenomenon wasDefeated. The education system was organized as follows. Almost immediately after the birth of the child, he could be sent to a nursery, then to a kindergarten. And there were both day care kindergartens and 24-hour ones. After 4 years of schooling in primary school, the child became a high school student. At the end, he could get a profession in a college or a technical school, or continue his education in the senior classes of the main school.
The desire to educate trustworthy membersSoviet society and literate specialists (especially the engineering and technical profile) made the Soviet education system the best in the world. The education system underwent total reform in the course of liberal reforms in the 1990s.
Features of the Soviet education system
One of the most significant advantages of the Soviet system of school education was its accessibility. This right was fixed constitutionally (Article 45 of the USSR Constitution of 1977).
The main difference between the Soviet system of education andAmerican or British consisted in the unity and coherence of all links in education. A clear vertical level (primary, secondary, technical school, university, graduate school, doctoral studies) made it possible to plan accurately the vector of their education. For each step, unified programs and requirements were worked out. When moving parents or changing schools for any other reasons, there was no need to re-study the material or to try to understand the system adopted in the new educational institution. The maximum amount of trouble that could be brought to another school is the need to repeat or catch up with 3-4 topics for each discipline. Textbooks in the school library were issued free of charge and were available to everyone.
Teachers of the Soviet school gave basic knowledge onTheir subjects. And they were quite enough that the graduate of the school independently (without tutors and bribes) entered a higher educational institution. Nevertheless, Soviet education was considered fundamental. The general educational level meant a broad outlook. In the USSR there was not a single school graduate who did not read Pushkin or did not know who Vasnetsov was.
Now in Russian schools, exams can beObligatory for pupils even of primary classes (depending on the internal policy of the school and the decision of the pedagogical council). In the Soviet school, children passed the final examinations after 8 and after the 10th grade. There was no talk about any tests. The method of controlling knowledge both in the classroom and during the exams was clear and transparent.
Each student who decided to continue his studies inHigh school, he was guaranteed to get a job after his graduation. First, the number of places in universities and institutes was limited to the social order, and secondly, after the end of the training, mandatory distribution was carried out. Quite often young specialists were sent to the virgin land, to all-Union construction projects. However, it took only a few years to work there (so the state compensated for the costs of training). Then there was an opportunity to return to his native city or stay where they fell in the distribution.
It is a mistake to believe that in the Soviet school allStudents had the same level of knowledge. Of course, the general program must be mastered by everyone. But if a teenager is interested in a particular subject, then he was given all the possibilities for his further study. At schools there were mathematical circles, circles of fans of literature and so on. In addition, there were specialized classes and specialized schools, where children were given the opportunity to study in depth certain subjects. The reason for the parents' particular pride was children attending a mathematics school or a school with a linguistic bias.