Teaching children in the Soviet school was intended notonly to teach them to read, count, write, give the basics of the various sciences, but also to form them as individuals, nurture the worthy members of society. Against the background of obtaining knowledge about the laws of nature, society and thinking, work skills, social skills evolved strong communist views and beliefs.
But this is true only in relation to the entire era of Soviet education.
At various stages of its formation and development of the situation was somewhat different.
Formation of the Soviet education
You can not talk about any meritsSoviet education system, not knowing how, when and where it came from. The basic principles of education in the near future were formulated in 1903. At the II Congress of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party, it was stated that education should be universal and free for all children under 16 years of age, regardless of gender. Furthermore, it should eliminate the caste and national schools, as well as to separate the school from the church. November 9, 1917 is the day of the establishment of the State Commission on Education, which was to develop and monitor the entire system of education and culture the vast Soviet country. Regulation "On the Unified Labor School of the RSFSR", dated October 1918, provides for mandatory school attendance by all citizens of the country between the ages of 8 and 50 years old who did not know how to read and write. The only thing that could be chosen, - the language to learn to read and write (Russian or native).
While most of the working population wasilliterate. Country Council considers lags far behind Europe, where general education for all was introduced nearly 100 years earlier. Lenin believed that the ability to read and write will be able to give a boost to each person to "improve their farms and their state."
By 1920, more than 3 million people have learned to read and write. The census that year showed that more than 40 percent of the population older than 8 years old can read and write.
1920 Census of the year was incomplete. She was not carried out in Belarus, Crimea, the Caucasus, North Caucasus, in Podolsk and Volyn provinces, a number of areas of Ukraine.
Radical changes have been waiting in the education system1918-1920. School was separated from the church, and the church from the state. The teaching of any doctrine was banned, boys and girls are now studying together, and for the lessons no longer have to pay anything. At the same time we began to create a system of pre-school education, revised rules of admission to higher educational institutions.
In 1927, the average training time for people over 9 years was just over a year, in 1977 - almost 8 full years.
By the 1930s, the phenomenon of illiteracy wasdefeated. The education system has been organized as follows. Almost immediately after the baby is born it can be to give the nursery, then in kindergarten. And there were a nursery day care, and around the clock. After 4 years of training in primary school child he became a high school student. Upon graduation, he could learn a profession at school or college or continue their education in the upper grades of the basic school.
The desire to raise a trustworthy memberSoviet society and competent professionals (particularly engineers and technicians) made the Soviet education system the best in the world. The totality of the reform of the education system has undergone in the course of liberal reforms in the 1990s.
Features of the Soviet education system
One of the most significant advantages of the Soviet system of school education is its accessibility. This constitutional right (Article 45 of the Constitution of the USSR in 1977) has been fixed.
The main difference from the Soviet system of educationAmerican or British lay in the unity and coherence of all parts of education. Clear vertical level (elementary, high school, college, university, postgraduate, doctorate) allowed accurately plan their training vector. For each stage we were to develop a common program and requirements. When you move a parent or the school did not change for any other reasons, need to re-examine the material or try to understand the system adopted in the new educational institution. Lots of trouble, which could bring a transition to another school - the need to repeat or to catch up with 3-4 topics in each discipline. Textbooks in the school library were issued free of charge and accessible to everyone.
Soviet school teachers were given basic knowledge ofhis subjects. And they were enough to graduate school on their own (without the coaches and bribes) enrolled in a higher education institution. Nevertheless, Soviet education was considered fundamental. General Education Level implied broad outlook. In the Soviet Union there was no school graduate who has not read Pushkin or not know who Vasnetsov.
Now in Russian schools examinations may beeven mandatory for students of primary school (depending on internal school policies and decisions of the teachers' council). The Soviet school children passed the final exams after 8 and after the 10th grade. None was not about any speech testings. The method of control as the knowledge in the classroom, and during examinations was clear and transparent.
Every student who has decided to continue training inuniversity, guaranteed to get the job at the end of it. Firstly, the number of places at universities and colleges was limited to the social order, and secondly, after the end of training is a compulsory distribution. Often young specialists sent to the virgin lands, to all-union construction. However, the work there had to be only a few years (since the state offset training costs). Then there is the opportunity to return to his hometown and stay there, where the fall in distribution.
It is a mistake to believe that the Soviet school at allstudents had the same level of knowledge. Of course, the overall program is to be assimilated by all. But if a teenager is interested in some specific subject, he was given every opportunity for his further study. When schools were mathematical circles, circles of literature lovers, and so on. In addition, there were specialized classes and specialized schools, where children are given the opportunity to study in depth certain items. The reason a special pride of parents had children enrolled in school or mathematical school with a language bias.