Action - is a security which provides the holder the right to participate in the management of the company and part of the profits as dividends.
The main types of shares
All shares are publicly posted or closed(Through the distribution of shares in a narrow circle of persons). By placing nature distinguish the primary and the secondary market shares, which come with the deal previously placed securities.
In the most general terms, two types of shares -common and preferred. Dezhateli ordinary shares may participate in the distribution of profits. The difference between preferred shares that they bring constant dividends, but instead the holder is deprived of the right to drive. Their analogy is founder's shares, which are distributed among the founders.
Another reason for the classification can serve as a branch principle. As it is isolated, for example, shares of oil and gas, telecommunications, steel companies and so forth.
On the stage of manufacture and payment distinguish ads placed and fully paid shares.
Authorized shares - is enshrined in the CharterSociety limit on the number of shares that may be issued. At the same time, the company may never release a given quantity of shares. Outstanding shares - are those that have been purchased by shareholders, one of them can stand fully paid shares for which full payment has been made by shareholders. Not all the issued shares are fully paid, as for some of them can be purchased in installments.
By issuer type distinguish shares of CJSC and OJSC. Shares of JSC suggest their acquisition narrow circle of people, they are issued in the form of a closed issue. Shares of can be resold without the consent of other shareholders.
Also distinguish between registered shares and sharesbearer. The name of the owner of registered shares must necessarily be recorded in the register, and when they made the sale the new owners of the data. They are used to analyze the structure of shareholders. Among them distinguish subspecies vankulirovannye shares that can be transferred only with the permission of the issuer. For bearer shares are no such restrictions, they assume the free market.
Shareholdings and their types
Typically, the stock is not bought separately and packets. Having large blocks of shares allows you to influence the activity of the company.
Among the stakes in share blocking,control and minotarny stake. The blocking stake - in theory it is more than 25% of shares (in practice, it may be less), the owner has the right to veto decisions of the Board of Directors.
The controlling stake (50% + 1 share) allows the wearer to make their own decisions about the functioning of AD, as well as to appoint managers.
Typically solutions in the Companytaken at a general meeting by a majority vote. But the bigger the company, the more common it shares among minority shareholders. Their interest does not allow them to participate in management.