The doctrine of syllogisms (syllogistic) is one of the most difficult sections of traditional logic. Sillogismos Greek word is translated into Russian as "soschityvanie".
The development of syllogistic are closely connected with the name of Aristotle.
Determination of the syllogism
The syllogism is the process of reasoninginvolving logic. At VI Dalia - a "form of reasoning, imaginations, when two data packages or judgment output third, opinion." Parcels are divided on the syllogism large - predicate (predicate) and less - subject (subject). Aristotle defined the syllogism: "The syllogism is the speech in which some of the provisions, due to the fact that the situation there, derives from the necessity to something other than what was necessary."
Syllogistic reasoning and conclusionsThey are widely used in everyday human activities. Syllogism - a deductive inference (deduktio from the Latin - "removal"). A deduction is called this way of thinking, when the general logic output by a particular situation. Deduction is the basis of all the evidence. The main principle of reasoning is as follows: if the premises are true, then the truth and consequences.
1; all men are mortal.
2, Socrates - a man.
3; therefore, Socrates is mortal.
Building a simple syllogism
Each syllogism necessarily present threeterm: a smaller (usually denoted by the letter S), greater (P) and medium (M). In the above syllogism shorter term or the subject (S) - is "Socrates", larger predicate (the P) - "death," and the average present in the premises and the missing in detention, (M) - "man."
Sometimes one of the premises or the final part can be omitted. This abridged syllogism called enthymeme, in Greek:. "In the mind", "thoughts" For example:
"Zinaida does not know how to park the car, because all women do not know how to park." It omitted a small package, "Zinaida - woman."
Here is an example with lowered entinemy conclusion:
"None of the planet can have a hyperbolic orbit, and Jupiter - the planet." "So - as you may guess - Jupiter may have a hyperbolic orbit." But this can no longer speak.
And this shortened form of the syllogism just the most common form of such reasoning.
In real arguments and evidence findingsprevious conclusions are the following parcels and so on. Sequences related inferences or syllogisms chain called polisillogizm.
All created beings nebeznachalny-
Living organisms are the created suschestva-
Therefore, living organisms nebeznachalny.
Living organisms nebeznachalny-
Vertebrates are living organizmy-
Consequently, nebeznachalny vertebrates.
Warm-blooded sut pozvonochnye-
Therefore, the warm-blooded nebeznachalny.
Man est teplokrovnoe-
Therefore, a person nebeznachalen.