The functional necessity of punctuation is obvious to almost everyone.
Even schoolchildren remember how much the meaning of the phrase "to execute can not be pardoned" depends on the position of the comma in one good cartoon.
The more complex and voluminous texts, the more important is the correct arrangement of punctuation marks, that is, punctuation.
Punctuation is a grammar section
Punctuation is one of the sections of grammar,Systematizing the rules for placing punctuation marks in written speech, as well as the signs themselves. Scientists can not come to an unequivocal decision about who invented the punctuation, but it is known that in unsystematic form punctuation marks (or rather one sign - point) were encountered even in ancient Greek texts. The point was used to separate one sentence from another, obeying the rules of oratory.
In modern form, punctuation appeared in the MiddleCentury with the development of printing business. In the XV century, the brothers of Manucus, who owned the printing shop, developed rules for the use of certain punctuation marks, simultaneously adding to their number. However, different European languages have differently adapted these rules for themselves, as a result of which practically in every language punctuation has a number of significant nuances.
The most difficult to study, but also the most accurate is the German punctuation system.
Theories of Russian punctuation
As for Russian punctuation, there are three theories,Who try to formulate its principles and functional purpose. Supporters of logical theory argue that there are only two types of punctuation: one group solves the problem of separating one sentence from another (or parts within the sentence from each other), and the second expresses an emotional attitude to the text.
Syntactic theory proceeds from the premise thatThe arrangement of punctuation marks entirely depends on the rules of the Russian language. However, the adherents of this theory recognize that these rules are based on the most accurate transmission of the meaning of the statement.
Finally, representatives of intonation theoryPunctuation is based on the fact that the division of written speech by punctuation is carried out in order to convey the rhythmic and declamatory dismemberment of the text. It means that the rules of punctuation are designed in such a way as to facilitate reading the text aloud.
In addition to the mandatory rules for the use of punctuation marks, there are so-called author's signs, using which writers try to convey additional emotions.
All researchers agree that punctuation- one of the most important sciences, which makes it possible to greatly simplify the process of written communication. Correct use of punctuation marks enables the reader to obtain not only factual information in a convenient form, but also to perceive the emotional component of the text, which is especially important for journalism and fiction. The arrangement of punctuation marks is capable of turning an incomprehensible text into an interesting reading, passing all the shades of meaning, therefore, one should not disregard the rules of punctuation.