One of the chemical compounds that are crucial for the existence of all kinds of life on Earth is water. Like other substances, it can be in different aggregate states.
One of them is water vapor.
The water vapor is gaseousAggregate state of water. It is formed by its individual molecules during evaporation. Water vapor under normal physical conditions is absolutely transparent, has no smell, taste and color. However, condensation of saturated water vapor, mixed with other gases, can form minute drops. They effectively scatter light. Therefore, in such a state, water vapor can be seen.
On the Earth, water vapor is contained in the atmosphere. They play an important role in the course of various natural processes, and also directly affect the vital activity of plants, animals and people. The content of water vapor in the air is called humidity. There are absolute and relative humidity. To obtain an indicator of humidity, hygrometers or psychrometers are used.
The most important place today is water vapor inIndustry and many branches of technology. It is used as a working fluid in the conversion of thermal energy into kinetic and electrical energy by means of various types of steam engines - steam power plants, steam turbines. Due to the relatively high heat capacity and the ability to be heated to a temperature above 100 ° C, steam is also widely used as a heat carrier. For example, in systems of steam heating.
The study of water vapor began in the 16th century. The first scientific work devoted to its properties was published in the 17th century by J. Port. With the widespread use of steam engines in the 19th and 20th centuries, water vapor again attracted the attention of scientists. Thus, in the middle of the 20th century, serious research was conducted on the behavior of steam at ultrahigh pressures. The results of the studies were presented at the fourth international conference on the properties of water vapor, held in New York in 1963.