The meaning of the word "spelling" is not difficult to guess.
It comes from the phrase "correctlywrite". There is also a synonym of Greek origin, meaning the same thing. It can be said that spelling or spelling is the ability to correctly display an oral speech with the help of letters.
But how to understand how correct this or that spelling will be?
How is spelling formed?
There are certain rules and regulationsSpelling, which regulate the spelling of words in the language. But it is wrong to regard these norms as harms of unshakable laws. Of course, most of them are due to historical patterns, changes that occur in the language.
So, in the process of language changes, the letters "b" and"B" lost their sound values, accordingly, the spelling of words in which they denoted sounds was changed. No longer is written "b" on the end of words ending in a consonant letter, some letters, such as "yat" or "fita", have disappeared.
And this process continues! Language is a living phenomenon. All the language "laws" and "rules" are periodically revised and changed. Until recently, the word "coffee" could only be used in the masculine gender, but now the rules "legitimized" the use of this noun also in the middle genus. There are many such examples.
If most native speakers get used toTo use this or that "wrong" word, its form, then gradually it becomes the norm. Thus, spelling is a reflection of the commonly used ways of conveying linguistic realities.
Sometimes completely "wrong" with the historicalPoint of view, writing is perceived by modern man as the only possible one. For example, we, without hesitation, form the plural from the word "honeycomb" - "honeycomb". But if we follow the historical tendency, the plural in this case should be formed in the same way as in the word "mouth" - "mouths", "lion" - "lions", etc. It is unlikely that anyone other than young children will now change this word in this way.
But to perceive the spelling or spelling system as something completely chaotic, not subject to any patterns, is also wrong. There are 3 basic principles of spelling:
Simplified, they can be described as follows:
- In the phonetic (phonemic) principle of spelling, the sounds on a letter are displayed in the same way as they are pronounced in a speech.
The phonetic principle operates, for example, in the Belarusian language.
- With the morphological principle, writing a word or a part of it, taken as the basic one, does not change when the word changes.
The morphological principle of spelling operates in the Russian language.
- The historical principle is characterized by the fact that writing a word does not change, regardless of how the word is pronounced.
A striking example of the operation of such a principle is English.
This principle is also called traditional.