Water is a complex engineering structures intended for the abstraction, storage, water treatment and transportation to the final consumer for drinking or industrial purposes.
The emergence of the aqueduct
The first water transmission system known from the first millennium BC. Sophisticated irrigation systems used in Egypt and Babylon can be considered the ancestor of modern plumbing.
Later, in the VII century BC, the water appears in Rome, where he was known as the aqueduct. It is known that the capital was supplied with water by means of aqueducts with a total length of over 350 km.
In Russia, there were also aqueducts. There have been three and all were part of Mytishchi gravity water supply system, construction of which began in 1781. Extant only one aqueduct - Rostokinskiy.
Aqueducts have a small inclination and the water moved thereon by gravity. aqueducts principle was used in ancient Greece and Carthage, and South American Indians Maya.
From Roman aqueduct she migrated to Europe, where he initiated the creation of a modern water supply system.
water supply system components
Water originates from a source of supply, which can act as open sources - rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and groundwater - aquifers, groundwater.
The system water flows into the intakeplants, where it is pumped from a source of submersible pumps. There, the water is brought to the drinking water standards - pass biological treatment, clarification, softening, desalination and desiliconization. Also on the water intake facilities keep records of abstracted water.
After collection and purification of water flows into the clean water tank (RVCH). It is a large container of water to create a reserve, designed to compensate for uneven consumption during the day.
Moving water between different water pipe units provide pumping stations - building, equipped with pumping units and the necessary piping.
Before entering the city water supply network the water is pumped to the water towers. The tower is a tank located at a certain elevation of residential and industrial buildings.
Russia's first water -Mytishchi-Moscow - was put into operation October 28, 1804 after 25 years of construction. Its capacity was 300 thousand buckets or 3,600 cubic meters per day.
Features are similar to the water tower RVCH, iecreation of water reserves, in addition, the tower serves to create a uniform pressure (the pressure) in the tubes urban network. This is achieved by the fact that the water from the reservoir of the tower out of its own weight.
From the water tower water is directed byan extensive system of pipes to the final consumers. Water pipes may be made of steel or cast iron. Previously, for such purposes are often used copper, lead and iron. In modern times the metals are giving way to a variety of polymers, such as polyethylene.