The water pipeline is a complex of engineering structures designed for the collection, storage, cleaning and transportation of water to the end user for drinking or technical purposes.
The emergence of the aqueduct
The first water transmission systems are known from the first millennium BC. Complex irrigation systems used in Egypt and Babylon can be considered an ancestor of the modern water supply system.
Later, in the 7th century BC, the water pipe appears in Rome, where it was called the aqueduct. It is known that the capital was supplied with water with the help of aqueducts with a total length of more than 350 km.
In Russia there were also aqueducts. In all there were three and all were part of the Mytishchi gravity water pipeline, the construction of which began in 1781. Only one aqueduct has survived to this day - Rostokinsky.
The aqueducts had a slight slope and water moved along them under the influence of gravity. The principle of aqueducts was used in ancient Greece, in Carthage, and in the South American Indians of Maya.
From the Roman Empire, the water pipeline migrated to Europe, where it initiated the creation of a modern water supply system.
Water supply components
The water supply originates at the source of water supply, which can act as open sources - rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and underground - aquifers, groundwater.
The water enters the water intake systemThe structure, where it is pumped from the source by submersible pumps. In the same place, water is brought to drinking standards - it undergoes biological purification, clarification, softening, desalination and desalination. Also, water is taken into account at the water intake facilities.
After sampling and cleaning, water enters a clean water tank (EHF). This is a large capacity to create a reserve of water, designed to compensate for uneven consumption during the day.
Water transfer between various water supply nodes is provided by pumping stations - buildings equipped with pump units and necessary pipelines.
Before submitting to the city water supply network, water is pumped into water towers. The tower is a container, located on a certain elevation above residential and industrial buildings.
The first Russian water pipeline -Mytishchi-Moscow - was launched on October 28, 1804 after 25 years of construction. Its capacity was 300 thousand buckets or 3600 cubic meters per day.
The functions of the water tower are similar to the EHF, that isThe creation of a reserve of water, in addition, the tower serves to create uniform pressure (head) in the pipes of the city network. This is achieved by the fact that the water from the tank of the tower goes under its own weight.
From the water tower, water is directed toBranched pipe system to end users. Pipes of water can be made of steel or cast iron. In the past, copper, lead and iron were often used for these purposes. In modern times, metals give way to various polymers, for example, polyethylene.