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WHAT mitochondria

What are mitochondria

The cell is not uniform. In its cytoplasm are various organelles, each of which performs its function.

Their work and ensure normal functioning of cells, and for her and the whole organism.

One of the most important organelles are mitochondria.


Mitochondria - a tiny dvumembrannyeorganelles shaped filaments or granules, typical for the majority of eukaryotic cells. The main function of mitochondria - is the oxidation of organic compounds, and production of ATP molecules from the released energy. Little mitochondrion is the main power station of the whole organism.

The origin of mitochondria

Among the scientists of today is very popularan opinion that appeared in the cell mitochondria are not alone in the course of evolution. Most likely, this was due to the capture of a primitive cell is not able at the time to use your own oxygen, the bacteria that is able and, therefore, was an excellent source of energy. This symbiosis was successful and entrenched in the subsequent generations. In favor of this theory, indicating the presence of DNA in the mitochondria own.

How are mitochondria

The mitochondrion has two membranes: external and internal. The main function of the outer membrane - is the separation of organelle of the cell cytoplasm. It consists of a protein layer and bilipidnogo penetrating it, and is carried through which transport of molecules and ions required for mitochondria. While the outer membrane is smooth, internal forms numerous folds - Kristen, which significantly increases its area. The inner membrane is composed mostly of proteins, among which there are the respiratory chain enzymes, transport proteins and large complexes ATP synthetase. In this place there is the synthesis of ATP. Between the outer and inner membrane is the intermembrane space to the inherent enzymes.
The inner space of the mitochondria is calledmatrix. Here are the enzyme system of fatty acids and pyruvate oxidation, Krebs cycle enzymes and mitochondrial genetic material - DNA, RNA and protein synthesizing apparatus.

What are mitochondria

The main function of mitochondria is the synthesisuniversal form of chemical energy - ATP. They also participate in the citric acid cycle, converting pyruvate and fatty acids to acetyl-CoA, and then oxidizing it. This organelle is stored and inherited mitochondrial DNA encoding a reproduction of tRNA, rRNA and certain proteins necessary for normal functioning of mitochondria.

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