Cement - one of the basic materials in the construction, is a special binder of mineral components which form during solidification are very durable, hard material.
Cement is made from various materials depending on the region.
The main raw material for cement production
Cement is made of special cementclinker that is the result of the firing of the main minerals produced in nature or manufactured by artificial means. Raw materials for cement can be clay and carbonate rocks.
Clay rocks - it's clay, loam, loess,shale, loess and other breeds. Clay while adding moisture swells and becomes plastic, which is important for high-quality cement. All these types of clay rocks are slightly different in their properties. For example, sandy loam contains many substances and shales dense and solid, composed of the plates have a lower humidity. Loess porous and crumbly, is composed of quartz, feldspar and other materials.
Carbonate rocks include chalk,limestone, marl and other limestone, calcareous and dolomitic materials. Depending on the composition, properties and quality of the raw material to produce cement with different features.
For example, less crystalline rock for the production of cement, as they interact with other elements during firing.
Most often used to create cement chalk,which is easily crushed and triturated. Marl is used for the production of cement, which is needed at the device fireplaces and stoves: the material is a transition between the clay and limestone. Also the basic raw material in cement, additional ingredients are added, which change the properties of the product.
This may be gypsum, fluorite, sodium, apatite, phosphogypsum, and other materials, as well as alumina, clay-containing additive.
The first phase of cement production - manufacturingclinker from basic raw material by firing. This is the most expensive stage, as the production of materials takes about 70% of cement production costs. To find the right breed to carry (usually with the help of dynamite), the upper part of the limestone mountains and open a layer of rocks, which is usually found at a depth of 10 meters. The extracted material was pulverized, mixed with additives and calcined.
Next clinker still crushed by heavy steelballs until he can not from powder, which should be well dried, then it adds the remaining ingredients - this is the second stage of the cement production process.