In March 1953, the head of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, passed away.
This event was the beginning of the destruction of the system, known as the Stalin regime.
Soon the country, in urgent need of changes, received a new leader. One of the leaders of the party, Nikita Khrushchev, became one of them.
The system of reforms carried out by the new head of state, as well as the period of his rule, was called the "Khrushchev thaw".
Successful attempt to break the totalitarian system
Nikita Khrushchev undertook the first large-scaleAttempt to consciously destroy the totalitarian system, which was entangled by the Soviet Union for decades. Khrushchev's reforms, which lasted until 1964, brought qualitative changes to the political and social life of the USSR. The internal and foreign policies of the proletarian state have changed, the violations of the law, arbitrariness and mass repressions have been put an end.
Joseph Stalin succeeded in a short historicalIt is time to create a system of "barracks socialism," which fundamentally contradicted the theoretical views of the classics of Marxism and the fundamental interests of the people. During the reign of Stalin, the party and state bureaucracy stood guard over his regime. The ideological machine meanwhile worked to its fullest, forcing the people frightened by repressions to believe that the country is confidently marching towards a brighter future.
Dissatisfaction with the established system was notOnly the lower classes, but also representatives of the party nomenclature. The death of the leader allowed one of the party workers, Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev, to advance. He was considered a political nugget, who possessed sufficient personal courage and leadership abilities.
Political straightforwardness, spontaneity of character, developed intuition - all this allowed Khrushchev to defeat political opponents, gain high office and confidence of the people.
"Khrushchev's thaw": a fresh wind of change
In September 1953, Khrushchev headed the CPSU, becomingFirst Secretary of the Party Central Committee. He faced the task of correctly assessing the current situation and outlining ways to solve the many problems that had accumulated in the country. Most of the ills of socialism, the new leader, saw in the consequences of Stalin's cult of personality, which, according to Khrushchev, allowed not only political mistakes, but also created obvious iniquity. That is why all Khrushchev's reforms permeated one idea: how to cleanse the country of Stalinism.
In the mainstream of these tasks, there were main actionsKhrushchev. He destroyed the repressive apparatus, at the Twentieth Party Congress condemned the personality cult of Joseph Stalin, and then made many innovative ideas at the time. They made an attempt to improve the state system, sharply limit the privileges of the administrative apparatus, make Soviet society more open. Under the leadership of Khrushchev, the working countries set out to develop the virgin lands and built new houses in large numbers.
It did not do without excesses: what are Khrushchev's attacks on artists and writers or his attempts to make corn "queen" of Soviet fields.
Modern researchers believe that manyKhrushchev's reforms and actions were contradictory and not entirely consistent. But no one denies today that the "Khrushchev thaw" dealt a fatal blow to the ideology of totalitarianism, putting an end to lawlessness. The years of Khrushchev's rule were a time when the foundations of democratic transformations were born, when a new galaxy of people called "the sixties" was forming. It was during the "thaw" that Soviet citizens learned without fear to discuss the social and political issues that worried everyone.