When exactly the theater arose for certain is unknown.
Prehistoric hunters played stories about their exploits, ancient Egyptians performed theatrical religious ceremonies, but the idea of theater as entertainment and art arose later.
The first European theatrical performancesEmerged in the VI century BC. From religious festivities dedicated to the god of wine and fertility Dionysus. Actors used masks to show the emotions of the characters, as well as to let the audience know what gender and age the character who came on the scene. The millennial tradition, which forbade women to play on stage, originated in the ancient Greek theater.
The first actor is the Greek Fesip, who won a poetic contest in honor of Dionysus.
In the III century BC. The Romans, inspired by the Greek theater, created their own versions of ancient Greek plays and began to put them on improvised scenes. Actors on such representations were slaves. Women were allowed to play only secondary roles. Since the Roman theaters had to fight for the attention of spectators who were accustomed to gladiatorial fights, public executions and chariot races, the plays increasingly began to contain scenes of violence and gross humor. With the spread of Christianity, similar ideas came to an end.
The emergence of the theater of the Middle Ages
Although in medieval Europe theatricalRepresentations were considered sinful, theatrical traditions developed. The minstrels were invented and performed by ballads, puppeteers, acrobats and storytellers performed at the fairs. During the Easter service the priests played mysteries - theatrical stories, which allow illiterate people to understand the meaning of what is happening.
Later the mysteries began to be played during other religious holidays, presenting various biblical stories.
Theater of the Renaissance
In the Renaissance (XIV-XVII centuries), interest aroseTo the revival of the classical Greek and Roman theater. At the junction of the traditions of the ancient and medieval theater, secular theatrical performances arose, comedy del arte appeared - an improvised spectacle created by several actors in masks. In these plays for the first time since ancient Roman times on the scene were allowed to return to women.
In 1576 in London was built the firstThe building of the theater, before all the plays were played in hotels, on the fairgrounds or in the halls of castles and grand houses. The English Queen Elizabeth I patronized the theatrical art, in the epoch bearing her name, the first professional playwrights appeared, the most famous being the great Shakespeare, actors, the tradition of using props and changing costumes during the performance. Finally, the classical theater was formed by the middle of the 18th century.