Twenty towers, which in ancient times helped to defend the Kremlin from enemies, and now decorate the most significant architectural structure of Russia, differ from each other in height and shape.
The highest tower of the Kremlin ensemble is Troitskaya.
Tower on the Neglinnaya River
The construction of the Trinity Tower began in 1495And lasted four years. The Italian architect Aloisio da Milano, who was named in Russia, as well as other Italian architects, named Fryazin. The Trinity Tower completed the construction of fortifications on the western wall of the Kremlin from the Neglinnaya River, and it became the same dominant element of the facade as the Spasskaya Tower on the eastern wall. When at the end of the 17th century the Kremlin towers were supplemented with the rich decoration of the tents, the new white stone decor of the Trinity Tower was largely repeating Spasskaya's decorations.
A powerful six-storey tower had a defensive significance for the fortress, and in a deep two-story cellar, after the disappearance of the military threat, a prison was located.
It is known that earlier from the Trinity Tower to Nikolskaya led a secret passage, and further along it it was possible to get to China-city.
In 1516, the Neglinnaya River was builtWooden, and then a stone bridge that connected the Trinity and Kutafia towers. The bridge also began to be called Troitsky, on it they drove to the court of the patriarch and to the chambers of the female half of the royal family. Now the gates of the Trinity Tower are the main entrance to the Moscow Kremlin for visitors and tourists.
The original architecture of the Trinity Bridge is interesting - it did not spread from one tower to another, but stood in the middle, and bridges reclined from it to the towers.
The current name of the tower was only inIn 1658, when Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich placed a nearby farmstead of the Trinity Monastery. Prior to this, by the names of other monasteries, the tower was called Bogoyavlenskaya, Rizopolozhenskaya and Znamenskaya, and even visited Karetna in honor of the Caret Court.
Lost treasures of the Trinity Tower
In 1685, the tower was installedClock-chimes, worked until the Moscow fire in 1812. Now the clock again appeared above the gate of the tower, but on the site of another loss - the icon of Kazan Mother of God. The icon was damaged in 1917 during the storming of the Kremlin by revolutionaries, and later removed from the tower and lost.
Another victim of the new regime in 1935 becameImperial double-headed eagle at the top of the tower. The oldest of the Kremlin eagles was assembled on bolts and it had to be dismantled directly on the spire of the highest tower of the Kremlin. The eagle was replaced with a gilded, semi-precious star, but a couple of years later the star faded, and it was replaced by a modern star made of ruby glass.
The height of the Trinity Tower with the star is 80 meters.
In 1707, Moscow was preparing to reflect the SwedishInvasion, so the tower had to expand loopholes: in the former narrow windows for the shooters did not enter the muzzle of heavy guns. And in 1870, the tower housed the Archives of the Ministry of the Imperial Court, and part of the decoration was damaged during the reconstruction of the premises for the document store. Today, the Presidential Orchestra is located in the Trinity Tower.