Twenty-towers, which in ancient times helped the Kremlin to defend against enemies, and now adorn the most significant architectural structure Russia, different from each other and the height and shape.
The highest tower of the Kremlin ensemble - Trinity.
Tower on the river Neglinnaya
Trinity Construction of the tower began in 1495and lasted four years. He supervised the construction of the Italian architect Aloisio da Milano, who was called in Russia, as well as other Italian architects, Fryazin. Troitskaya Tower completed the construction of fortifications on the western wall of the Kremlin by the Neglinnaya River, and became the dominant element in the same facade as the Spasskaya Tower on the eastern wall. When at the end of the XVII century Kremlin towers added to the rich decoration of the tents, the new white-stone decor Trinity tower was largely repeated the Saviour decoration.
The powerful six-storey tower was a fortress for defensive value, and in a deep two-storey basement, after the disappearance of the threat of war, the prison is located.
It is known that before Trinity Tower of St. Nicholas led to the secret passage, and further on it could get in China Town.
In 1516, through the Neglinnaya River was builtwooden, then a stone bridge that connected the Trinity and Kutafiya tower. The bridge also became known as the Trinity, for it drove to the court and the patriarch to the chambers of the female half of the royal family. Now the gates of Trinity Tower is the main entrance to the Moscow Kremlin for visitors and tourists.
An interesting original architecture Troitsky Bridge - he did not flip from one tower to another, and stood in the middle, and already from it to the towers reclined bridges.
Its current name only in the tower wasIn 1658, when Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich placed near a farmstead Trinity Monastery. Prior to that, on behalf of the other monasteries tower was called the Epiphany, and Rizopolozhensky Znamenskaia, and even visited Karetnaya after the coach house.
Lost treasures of Trinity Tower
In 1685 the tower was installedastronomical clock, worked up to the Moscow fire of 1812. Now watch again appeared over the gates of the tower, but on the site of another loss - the icon of Our Lady of Kazan. The icon was damaged in 1917 during the storming of the Kremlin's revolutionaries, and later removed from the tower and lost.
Another victim of the new regime in 1935 was thethe imperial double-headed eagle on the top of the tower. The oldest of the Kremlin eagles has been collected on the bolts and disassemble it had to be right on the spire of the highest towers of the Kremlin. Eagle replaced the gold-plated semi-precious star, but after a couple of years, the star faded, and replace it established a modern star of ruby glass.
The height of the tower of Trinity along with the star of 80 meters.
In 1707, Moscow was prepared to reflect Swedishinvasion, so the tower had loopholes to expand: in the old narrow little window for the shooters did not enter the barrel of heavy guns. And in 1870, located in the tower Archive of the Ministry of the Imperial Court, and part of the furniture was damaged during the reconstruction of premises for dokumentohranilischa. Today, Trinity Tower is the Presidential Orchestra.