The vacuole-membrane vesicles in the cytoplasm of the cell filled with cell sap.
Vacuoles in plant cells to occupy 90% by volume. Animal cells have vacuoles time, which occupy less than 5% of their volume.
vacuoles functions depend on what cell they are.
The main function of vacuoles - the implementation of the relationship between organelles, transport of substances in a cage.
Functions vacuoles of plant cells
The vacuole is one of the most importantcell organelles, and performs a variety of functions, including: the absorption of water, giving the painting a cell, the output of the exchange of toxic substances, the storage of nutrients. In addition, some plants produce vacuole sap helps to break down the "old" part of the cell.
Vacuole plays a major role in the absorption cellwater. By osmotic pressure water flows into the vacuole. The result appears in the cell turgor pressure that triggers cell growth during stretching. Osmotic uptake of water is also important to maintain the overall plant water mode and for the photosynthesis process.
The vacuole are coloring substances called anthocyanins. They are dependent on color of flowers, fruits, leaves, buds, roots of plants.
Vacuole displays of toxic substances and the exchange ofsome secondary metabolites. Waste are crystals of calcium oxalate. They are deposited in the form of crystals in the vacuoles of various shapes. The role of secondary metabolites are not completely understood. Perhaps alkaloids, as a secondary metabolite, like tannins, with astringent taste them repel herbivores that prevents eating these plants.
Vacuoles store up nutrients: mineral salts, sucrose, and various organic acids (malic, acetic, citric, etc.), amino acids, proteins. If necessary, the cytoplasm of cells can utilize these substances.
It produces a milky juice in the vacuoles of cells of some plants. Thus, in the milky juice of rubber trees Brazilian contains enzymes and substances necessary for the synthesis of rubber.
The vacuoles are sometimes held hydrolyticenzymes, and then act as the vacuole lysosomes. Thus, they are able to break down proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, plant hormones, volatile, are involved in the splitting of the "old" parts of the cell.
The functions of animal cells vacuoles
Pulsating (contractile) in vacuolesfreshwater protozoa are used for osmotic regulation of the cell. Since the concentration of substances in the river water is lower than the concentration of substances in the cells of protozoa contractile vacuoles absorb water and, conversely, the excess water is discharged outside through the cuts.
In some cells of multicellular invertebrates(Sponges, coelenterates, Turbellaria some molluscs) capable of intracellular digestion and in certain unicellular organisms body formed digestive vacuoles containing the digestive enzymes. The digestive vacuole in higher animals are produced in special cells - phagocytes.