Using words in everyday speech, people usually do not think about the history of their origin. Linguists are another matter.
They spend a lot of time trying to get to the true meaning of the words and restore the path of their development.
There is even a special section of linguistics devoted to these questions, which is called etymology.
Etymology: two approaching the concept
The term "etymology" has Greek roots andComes from the words "truth" and "doctrine." Usually this concept is used in two basic meanings, which should not be confused. When one speaks of the etymology of a single word, they usually mean the establishment of its historical roots. Often this term is used to denote a section of linguistics, which is precisely the study of the origin of words.
The principles of this science can be fully applied toThe very term "etymology". For the first time it is found in the writings of ancient philosophers of Greece. The constituent parts of this word have the meanings "true, true" and "meaning, teaching." In other words, etymology aims to find the true meaning of words. Of particular importance for linguists is the search for the meaning of the word that was embedded in it at the time of creation, as well as tracing the dynamics of the change in the original meaning.
Developing, words change not only their meanings,But also the external form. Undergoes a change, in particular, the sound expression and phonetic appearance of the word. If scientists manage to restore the most ancient form of the term, then the question of its origin is often clarified. Sometimes it turns out that the ancient sounding implied absolutely not the meaning that modern speakers of the language put in the word.
Etymology as a science
The subject of etymology as a science should be consideredStudy of the process of creating the vocabulary of the language and sources of word formation. Linguists, engaged in etymology, strive to reconstruct the language composition as accurately as possible, starting from the earliest periods, when writing was just beginning.
Etymological analysis is aimed at determiningThe word-formation model, on which a certain word arose. It is especially fascinating to follow the historical changes in primary forms and their consistent transformation. Among the methods of etymology can be called genetic analysis and a comparative-historical approach, which are most often used in a complex.
Being a division of linguistics, the etymology itselfIs closely related to other sciences about the language: lexicology, morphology, semantics, dialectology. Without the data provided by etymology, it is difficult to understand the nature of the shifts in the semantic structures that occur in the historical development of speech. The methods of etymology allow us to penetrate those chronological levels where written history did not yet exist. This science with its data complements the information that humanity derives from history and archeology.