The term "electrolytic dissociation" refers to the process of disintegration of matter, electrically conducting, into ions.
This process can take place both in solution and in the molten material.
Dissociation exposed to acid, alkali. Most salts are the strong electrolytes. This means that their solutions or melts conduct electricity well, due to the formation of large number of charged particles - ions.
What is the mechanism in dissociation of salts solutions or melts
Imagine what will happen to all the familiarpeople table salt, if the crystals melt or throw into the water. This material has the structure of the ionic lattice. When melting the thermal energy will lead to the fact that the oscillations of the ions in the lattice sites repeatedly reinforced, resulting in communication between neighboring ions begin to fail. There will be free ions. And this process with continued heating will continue until the complete destruction of the crystal lattice. A similar mechanism will fracture the crystals by dissolving sodium chloride in water, but instead are immediately heat water molecules, a sort of "stretching" certain crystals on the particles.
For the first time the theory of electrolytic dissociation waslaunched two chemists - Arrhenius and Ostwald at the end of the XIX century. It is through dissociation properties describe salts, and acids and bases. The acid and base salts are dissociation steps, e.g., KHSO4 = K ^ + + HSO4 ^ -
What are the characteristics of dissociation of salts
When the dissociation of salts formed positivelycharged metal cations (or an ammonium cation), as well as negatively charged cations acid residues. The dissociation process is depending on which salt is subjected to dissolution or melting (mean, acidic or basic).
If the salt is the average (i.e., formed by acid molecules in which all of hydrogen substituted by cations of metal cations or ammonium), dissociation takes place under such schemes, in a single step:
KNO3 = K ^ ++ NO3 ^ -
Na2SO4 = 2Na ^ ++ SO4 ^ 2-
The acid and base salts are dissociated in somestages. Acid salt (i.e., formed by an acid hydrogen cation which does not fully substituted) loses first metal ion, and then splits off hydrogen cation. For example:
NaHSO4 = Na ^ ++ HSO4 ^ -
HSO4 ^ - = H ^ ++ SO4 ^ 2-
At the same basic salts (ie formed by alkalis, who have not completely replaced by a hydroxyl group), first split off acid residues, and then ^ OH - ions. For example:
Cu (OH) Cl = Cu (OH) ^ ++ Cl ^ -
Cu (OH) ^ + = Cu ^ 2 ++ OH ^ -