Cement is the main material used in the construction industry.
The substance in the form of a powder is dissolved by a liquid, as a result of which a thick mass is formed. When hardening, cement changes its composition and turns into a material resembling stone in strength.
The history of cement is many centuries old. Its composition has changed many times.
At the moment there are several of its varieties.
History of cement
It is believed that the first inventors of cementBecame Romans. To make a building mixture, they used lime, to which volcanic ash and crushed hardened deposits were mixed in certain proportions.
Numerous studies and experiments,Conducted by craftsmen, led to the fact that cement began to be made from a special kind of lime and clay. The main properties of these components of the building material are partial melting during heating and a rather fast process of "petrification".
For several years there was such a variety of cement as romantsement, but at the moment its production is suspended.
Types of cement
Depending on the composition, severalVarieties of cement, each of which is used for a particular construction sector. The most common is portland cement. Almost 80% of this cement consists of calcium silicates. Instead of lime, the lime product, clinker, is used in the production of this material. The second main component in this composition is gypsum. Portland cement is produced in dry or liquid form.
Cement Sorel - building material, in the compositionWhich includes oxides and magnesium salts. Such cement is used mainly for the manufacture of individual elements - steps, plates. This material is used for the production of mixtures for pouring floors, abrasive wheels and grindstone.
Alumina cement by the process of solidification inSignificantly exceeds other varieties. The main component in its composition is the clinker. A distinctive feature of such cement - due to mixing in certain proportions of astringents with special mineral additives, a mixture is obtained, which during solidification increases its main volume.
There are several varieties of mixedCements, which are made from components that are part of similar mixtures. The main rule of the process of manufacturing such cement is the observance of proportions.
The composition of any cement includes a specialAntifoam component based on carbohydrate. This substance prevents the ingress of air into the mixture, which increases its strength and durability. Stabilizing agent eliminates the appearance of foam and turns cement into an astringent artificial joint.
Composition and application of cement
Cement is used in construction not only forManufacture of plates and pouring floors, but also as a reliable connector of other building materials. In addition to lime, other components of carbonate and clayey groups - chalk, marl, slate and loess-like loam, are used quite often in the production of cement. An essential element in the composition of any type of cement is mineral additives.
A separate type of cement is considered acid-resistantmaterial. Its main feature is the presence in the composition of liquid glass and quartz sand. Such a substance has increased strength indicators and is used mainly for the construction of missile silos, bunkers or other objects of defense or protective use.