Periodization - an important aspect of history. Based on the historical period, you can learn more about a particular event or phenomenon.
Therefore, when working with medieval documents the historian must have a good understanding of what the specifics of this period and that studying the history of the Middle Ages.
The question of periodization
At first glance, the answer is obvious -exploring the history of the Middle Ages. But for many years, historians are to develop a common view on the issue of when to start and end with the Middle Ages.
Most authors agree that the storyEuropean Middle Ages begins with the collapse of the Roman Empire in the V century BC However, this view of the problem can not be considered universal. Political and economic changes in the Roman Empire began to occur long before its collapse. In fact, the economic history of the Middle Ages began earlier political. Moreover, it remains debatable question is the beginning of the Middle Ages in Europe, for example, in China.
Some researchers believe the Middle Ages only a European phenomenon, excluding him from Asia.
It marks the end of the Middle Ages even harder. Marxist historiography adopted the view that the early modern period can be considered as a revolution in England in 1640, accompanies the overthrow of the king and the coming to power of Cromwell. At the same time, scientists in Europe and the United States suggest other dates - the beginning of the Great Geographical Discoveries, or the beginning of the religious wars in Europe associated with the emergence of Protestantism. As a result, all three points of view coexist in the works of various authors.
on the history of mentality Experts emphasize that it is impossible to draw a clear boundary of the end of the Middle Ages, as the repose of that time were strong even in people of XVIII century.
The main sections of the history of the Middle Ages
In the XIX century, during the formation of the modernhistorical science researchers interested primarily political history of the Middle Ages - the appearance and disappearance of states and their conflicts with each other, the most prominent political figures. Later, the researchers expanded range of interests. At the turn of XIX-XX centuries began to appear more and more books on religious history of this period, which was closely linked to the political - for example, the Pope in the Middle Ages was one of the largest landowners and managed his state.
Marxist historians began to focus on the economic history of the Middle Ages, considering that it is the evolution of production, changes occur in social relations.
At that time, in the twenties of the XX century there werehistorians, for example, Marc Bloch, who began to study the complex mentality of medieval man. The modern science of history, retaining the earlier scenes study of medieval history, and presents it in a new light - as the history of everyday life.