A healthy heart is a round-the-clock muscle pump that pumps blood from the atria to the ventricles.
When heart defects occur such structural changes in the heart or in large vessels, in which the circulation of blood is disturbed.
What are heart defects?
By their origin, the vices are divided intoCongenital and acquired. The first arise in the period of intrauterine development, before the birth of a child. These include anatomical defects of the heart, valvular apparatus or blood vessels of the heart. The cause of a congenital defect can be viral infections of the mother (rubella, cytomegalovirus infection), alcohol poisoning, drugs. Sometimes the cause is heredity or hormonal imbalance of the mother. The frequency of congenital malformations in a child of age mothers is increasing. Similar heart defects are formed at the 2-8th week of development.
There are more than a hundred varieties of congenitalHeart defects. Often a division into "blue" vices, accompanied by cyanosis of the skin, and "white" defects, which are characterized by pale covers, is used. The "blue" includes the tetralogy of Fallot, the atresia of the pulmonary artery, the transposition of the main vessels. "White" defects are called interventricular septal defects, aortic aortic stenosis, atrial septal defects, open arterial duct, coarctation of the aorta and isolated stenosis of the pulmonary trunk.
Congenital malformation can occur immediately afterBirth of a child, but more often the changes appear after three years. The child lags behind physically, there is a cyanotic or pallor of the skin, dyspnoea with physical exertion. "White" vices sometimes appear only at school age in the form of headache, heart pain, dyspnea.
Acquired defects develop as a result ofVarious diseases. Most often, heart defects are caused by rheumatism and infective endocarditis. Less common are syphilis, atherosclerosis, ischemic disease, various heart injuries.
Treatment and prevention of heart defects
Most congenital malformations are leveled withBy age alone. In severe cases, there is a risk of heart failure, which requires surgical intervention. Acquired defects are subject to conservative treatment, but with increasing symptoms, operations of prosthetic repair of the heart valves or dissection of the fused valve flaps are shown.
Significantly reduce the risk of heart diseaseHelps prevent and correct treatment of streptococcal infections (sore throats), which are the main reasons for the development of rheumatism. With the already developed rheumatism, bicillin prophylaxis is necessary for the forthcoming medical interventions-the removal of teeth, tonsils, adenoids, and other operations. With the formation of a heart defect in order to prevent heart failure, compliance with a rational motor regimen is recommended: walking, therapeutic gymnastics, restriction of salt intake, high-grade protein nutrition, dispensary observation at the cardiologist.