The word "gender" literally means "sex".
However, the semantic content of the two terms are different.
This is particularly evident in such a concept as "gender policy".
Both concepts - and sex and gender - is characterized by the division of people into men and women. But the term "sex" refers to biological separation, while "gender" - to the social.
The difference between sex and gender
Sex - a biological characteristic of man. It can be determined already in the newborn on the primary sexual characteristics, ie, on the anatomical structure of the external genitalia.
From this perspective, human sexual identity does not depend on the culture to which he belongs. No impact on gender and the environment in which the child will grow up.
Gender called social sex - behaviorperson associated with its social role as a man or a woman. This is determined by a whole system of ideas about how to behave as a person of a particular sex, and what behavior to him or her under the ban. The gender role dictates what professional activities more acceptable to men and what - to women. These ideas range from epoch to epoch, and within the same time - from nation to nation, from culture to culture. This distinguishes gender from biological sex characteristics. For example, a US citizen from a biological point of view does not differ from a resident of Saudi Arabia, but their different social status associated with gender.
Gender, as a social floor, and can not be the samebiological as a result of education. Such human history had taken place not only in the "corrupt" modernity. For example, the famous female pirate Mary Read's parents as a child raised as a boy, because for inheritance needed a male child. This subsequently led to its occupation, which at the beginning of the XVIII century, in principle, could not be considered "feminine".
Policy of the state associated with the rights of men and women, gender differences, gender roles, called the gender policy.
The gender policy of the state in many waysdetermined by the traditions of a people - national and religious. So today in many Muslim countries, the rights of men and women differ. For women, marriage age comes earlier than for men. The man has the right to divorce his wife without cause, and for women there is a hard list of reasons why she can ask for a divorce. Women are prohibited from much of what is permitted to men, for example, to drive a car. If a woman has violated the law, the responsibility of her husband.
In other countries, make up the majorityToday, the law declares the equality of the sexes. The marriageable age the same for men and for women. The right to elect and be elected is not related to gender. Formally, the floor of the applicant can not be a reason for denial of employment. However, the difference in the rights and responsibilities between men and women persists in some moments. For example, in the Russian Federation, only men are subject to conscription, and in Israel - both men and women.