The Mariana Trench is an oceanic trough located in the western part of the Pacific Ocean near the Mariana Islands.
It is the deepest geographic object on the planet.
The depth of the Mariana Trench reaches a mark of 11 022 m. The pressure near the bottom of the trough is 108.5 MPa, which is more than 1000 times higher than normal atmospheric pressure.
Legends of the Mariana Trench
On January 23, 1960, the onlyImmersion of man to the bottom of the hollow. Lieutenant Don Walsh and scientist Jacques Picard on the bathyscaphe "Trieste" reached the very bottom of the trench. But, after a while, the device, which registers noises, began to transfer sounds to the surface, similar to a metal screech. At the same time, the huge shadows of strange creatures appeared or appeared on the screens of monitors.
Within an hour the captain of the ship was acceptedThe decision to lift a bathyscaphe from the ocean floor. The climb lasted more than 8 hours. When the bathyscaphe was on board the ship, it turned out that the hull of the underwater vehicle, made of the strongest titanium-cobalt steel, was bent, and the cable on which the bathyscaphe was lowered was half-sawn. Who wanted to leave the "Trieste" at the bottom of the hollow is unknown.
A similar situation arose during descent into the hollowThe German bathyscaphe "Haifish". All his crew claimed that they saw a huge animal at a depth of 7 km, resembling a lizard that clung to the ship with its teeth.
Is life possible at such depths
Scientists have long been trying to solve the riddles of marineDepths. How should creatures living under the influence of such enormous pressure and low temperatures look like? The complexity of studying such depths is enough, but the ingenuity of man knows no limits. For quite a long time scientists believed that in the darkness of the ocean floor, under monstrous pressure life can not exist.
But with the help of unmanned bathyscaphes, whichInvestigated the Pacific Ocean at a depth of over 6,000 m, it was proven otherwise. At such depths, huge colonies of Pogonophora organisms were discovered. This invertebrate being dwells in a long chitinous tube open at both ends. As a result of subsequent research, more diverse creatures were found.
At great depths, sunlight and algae are absent, there is high salinity and an abundance of carbon dioxide.
Creatures of the Mariana Trench
With the help of the latest technologies at depths from 6 to 11 km in the hollow the following organisms were discovered:
- foraminifera - a protozoan squad, a subclass of rhizome, have a cytoplasmic body, are dressed in a shell-
- xenophiophores - the simplest barophilic bacteria-
- Barophilic bacteria - develop only in the presence of high pressure-
- polychaete worms-
- Equinox Crayfish-
- Holothuria and gastropod mollusks.
This is the list of those animals that have already beenAre identified. But at the bottom were also seen worms about 1.5 meters in length, octopus mutants, strange starfish and soft-bodied two-meter creatures of incomprehensible nature.