Inert gases in the Periodic Table - a main group elements of group VIII: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon, and the latter is a radioactive element.
They are also called noble gases.
Electronic structure of inert gases
All inert gases are complete, stableThe outer electron configuration level: helium is d, the remaining gases - octet. Each of them terminates the corresponding period in the periodic table.
Inert gases in nature
All inert gases besides radioactive radoncan be found in the composition of air. Helium - the most abundant element after hydrogen in space. Sun 10% of it is composed of noble gas, hydrogen generated from a nuclear fusion reaction of producing positrons and antineutrinos.
The physical properties of the noble gases
Inert gases are presented monatomicmolecules. Under normal conditions, helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon - gas is colorless and odorless, sparingly soluble in water. The greater their atomic number, the higher the boiling point and melting.
Helium has unique properties: it remains liquid even at very low temperatures, down to absolute zero, without undergoing crystallization. Helium may be crystallized only under a pressure of 25 atmospheres. Furthermore, this gas is the lowest boiling point of all the substances.
Chemical properties of noble gases
For a long time it was believed that inert gases in generaldo not form compounds. However, experimentally under special conditions were obtained fluorides and oxides of xenon, whose existence was predicted by theorist Linus Pauling.
As used inert gases
Due to its outstanding physicochemicalproperties of inert gases are widely used in science and engineering. Thus, with liquid helium produced very low temperature, and a mixture of helium and oxygen at a ratio of 4: 1 is used as an artificial breathing atmosphere for divers.
Since helium - the easiest gas after hydrogen, they are often filled airships, balloons and probes. Its lifting force equal to 93% of the lifting power of hydrogen.
Neon, argon, krypton and xenon are used inIllumination - the production of gas discharge tubes. When electric current is passed through a tube filled with neon or argon gas begins to glow, and the color of this light depends on the gas pressure.
Argon is the cheapest of a noble gas is used to create an inert atmosphere during chemical reactions whose products interact with oxygen.