Relations between Russia and the United States have long been calledCold war, but until 2012 in the United States formally operated the Vanik-Jackson amendment, adopted back in 1974 and imposed restrictions on cooperation with Russia, and formerly with the USSR.
Adoption of Amendment
Vanik-Jackson amendment was adopted to the "Law onTrade "of the United States of America in 1974. Named after the surnames of the legislators who proposed it - Congressman Charles Vanik and Senator Henry Jackson.
The amendment restricts US trade with countries that create barriers to emigration and violate human rights. Against states that violate international norms, the United States imposed sanctions.
One of the reasons for the adoption of the amendment was the restrictions that the Soviet Union imposed on leaving from its territory, for people of Jewish nationality.
The "Trade Law" was signed on January 3, 1975The then US President Gerald Ford. Under the Jackson-Vanik amendment came the USSR, whose exports to the United States were subject to duties that exceeded the usual 10 times.
The path to cancellation
In 1985, citizens of the Soviet Union receivedThe opportunity to freely leave and emigrate from the country. This right has been preserved for the legal successor of the USSR - Russia. As a consequence, the value of the amendment was lost. However, since 1989, US presidents have repeatedly imposed a moratorium on its effect on the USSR, and then on the CIS states, but they have not been abolished.
The Jackson-Vanik amendment had a negative impact on theRelations between Russia and the United States, recalling their past confrontation. In 2002, the States recognized that Russia is a country with a market economy. So the formal reasons for the action of the amendment have finally disappeared.
In the same year, the US government tried to abolishThe effect of the amendment with respect to Russia. President George W. Bush asked Congress to solve this problem. However, as soon as it seemed that all formalities would be settled, Russia banned the import of chicken meat from the US, and the work stopped.
In 2000, the US withdrew from the action of the amendmentOne more state is China. In addition, at the beginning of the century, restrictions on trade with a number of CIS countries ceased to apply: Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Ukraine.
In 2008 Barack was elected President of the United StatesObama, whose administration has several times announced its intention to cancel the amendment against the Russian Federation. This promise was eventually restrained. On November 16, 2012, the cancellation of the Jackson-Vanik amendment was approved by the lower house of the US Congress. The law, allowing to cancel the amendment in relation to Russia and Moldova, was later passed by the Senate. On December 20, 2012, President Obama signed the corresponding declaration.