Relations between Russia and the United States have not calledthe Cold War, however, until 2012 in the United States formally acted Vanik amendment, Jackson adopted in 1974 and imposes restrictions on cooperation with Russia, and especially with the Soviet Union.
The adoption of the amendment
Vanik Amendment, Jackson was taken to the "Law onTrade "of the United States in 1974. Named by the names of the legislators, it suggested - Congressman Charles Vanik amendment and Senator Henry Jackson.
The amendment restricts US trade with countries that create barriers to immigration and violate human rights. Against states that violate international norms, the US introduced sanctions.
One of the reasons for the adoption of the amendments became limitations that the Soviet Union imposed an exit from its territory of persons of Jewish nationality.
"Trade Act" signed January 3, 1975then US President Gerald Ford. Under the effect of Jackson-Vanik amendment and the Soviet Union was, of which exports of goods to the United States free of customs duty in excess of the usual 10 times.
The path to the abolition
In 1985, citizens of the Soviet Union receivedfree to leave and emigrate. This right is preserved for the successor of the USSR - Russia. As a consequence, the value of the amendment was lost. However, since 1989, US presidents have repeatedly imposed a moratorium on its action against the USSR and then the CIS countries, but not canceled.
Jackson-Vanik amendment adversely affects therelations between Russia and the United States, reminding of their former confrontation. In 2002, States recognized that Russia - a country with a market economy. So finally disappeared formal reasons for the amendment.
That same year, the US government tried to cancelthe amendment in respect of Russia. With the request for solving this problem in Congress asked President George W. Bush. However, once it seemed that all the formalities will be settled, Russia banned the import of US chicken meat, and work stopped.
In 2000, the US withdrew from under the amendmentanother country - China. In addition, at the beginning of the century ceased to operate restrictions on trade with a number of the CIS countries: Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Ukraine.
In 2008, US President Barack was electedObama, whose administration has repeatedly stated its intention to cancel the effect of the amendment in respect of Russia. This promise was eventually kept. November 16, 2012 cancellation of the Jackson-Vanik amendment was approved by the lower house of the US Congress. The law authorizing the repeal in relation to Russia and Moldova, and later adopted by the Senate. 20 December 2012 a declaration signed by President Obama.