All items are made from the outside worldmicro, small building blocks that form the universe itself. Planets, stars, water, earth, air, everyone - all the visible result of the invisible effects.
But it can be studied and understood.
Micro, macro, mega - these consolessometimes hides a huge and sometimes quite tiny sense. In this case, micro means very little. So tiny that you can not see the simple human eye.
The magic of the microcosm
Strictly speaking, a microcosm - a molecule, atom,the nuclei of atoms, all the variety of elementary particles, which can not be seen just like that. For the invasion of that kingdom requires special techniques and special thin devices. And once they have been developed, it turned out that all is very difficult. Earlier in the theory of body mechanics were seen as solid, which was denied after the use of the latest research methods. Scientists saw molecule.
they consist of smaller, in turnparticles, the building blocks - the atoms. Surprisingly, a number of molecules, the number of atoms can be very large. And the atoms themselves, too, proved to be extremely complex systems. They have electrons and nuclei, consisting of different particles - protons and neutrons. The number of electrons in an atom is usually equal to the number of protons of the nucleus. But it is possible to move electrons from one atom to another, disconnected and attached to an atom that is determined by the chemical terms such as valence.
It also happens that the elementary particles behavestrange. Since the photon, being a unit of light, can show the properties of both waves and particles. Also there are particles which live only fractions of a second when the air pass through the cosmic rays. Other actively emit energy in the form of radiation.
While the atom was considered indivisible, scientists quietlyWe studied the properties of molecules and creating new substances on their basis. But gradually expanded scientific knowledge and it turned out that there is something that is less than an atom.
Among the most famous of the smallest particles can bemention pi-meson, the muon neutrinos, gluons and other interesting things. Some of them are well known. People learned how to get them in the laboratory. And there are particles which is impossible to obtain. They are contained in cosmic rays.
Of particular interest to scientists areresearch on elementary particle accelerators. There are high-speed streams of elementary particles with high energy. At high speed, they collide and form other so-called subunit. It is now known them for more than four hundred and discovery continues.
So microcosm gradually reveals its secrets to the inquisitive mind of man.