Composite materials are now used in many industrial sectors, ranging from the production of everyday objects to construction of spaceships.
Their density, strength and a number of other technical characteristics allow to use them in extreme conditions - so what is a composite material?
The composition of the composite material
Called heterogeneous composite solidmaterial that was artificially constructed from multiple components with different physical and chemical properties. The mechanical characteristics of the composite material properties of the matrix determines the ratio and of reinforcing elements, and their bond strength which is ensured by proper choice of the initial components and the method of combining them.
The most primitive composite materials are the bricks of clay and straw that were used by the ancient Egyptians.
Most often referred to as composite materialsresin or polymer matrices. For the manufacture of composite materials using phenolic, epoxy, vinylester, polyester and polypropylene polymers. Reinforcing agents in the manufacture of composites are the bulk substance and fiber. The strength of the material depends on the amount of resin - the lower it is, the stronger it is. Today, in order to achieve ideal proportions of all the components in the composite material molding technology is constantly improving.
Methods of forming composite materials
In the process of forming the matrix compositematerial combined with its reinforcing material, whereby it is possible to manufacture a particular product. Thermosetting polymeric matrix during the molding process of curing pass through the chemical reaction. The thermoplastic polymer matrix during molding melted and frozen in a predetermined shape. This process typically takes place at room temperature and normal pressure.
The most common today is considered to be a composite cement with metal reinforcement or asphalt.
There is also a contact (hand) molding,which has a number of serious shortcomings. The molded article by this method contained an increased amount of resin, making it more fragile. In addition, when it is difficult to achieve ideal proportions of the matrix and reinforcing agents, as well as to comply with the thickness of the product, avoiding the internal air passages.
vacuum forming process involvesUse the open snap-in which to place the components of the composite, covering the silicone membrane or polymer film. Then snap under atmospheric pressure and elevated temperature vacuum is applied.