Hybridization is the process of producing hybrids - plants or animals, descended from crossing different varieties and breeds.
The word hybrid (hibrida) from Latin translates as "hybrid".
Hybridization: natural and artificial
The process of hybridization in biology based oncombining in a cell of genetic material from the different cells of different species. Varies intraspecific hybridization and distant, at which the connection of different genomes. In nature, natural hybridization occurred and occurs continuously without human intervention. This interbreeding within the species, change and improve plants and new varieties and animal breeds. From the viewpoint of chemical DNA hybridization occurs, nucleic acids changes at the atomic and subatomic levels.
In the academic chemistry for hybridization refers to specific interaction between the molecules of the substance of atomic orbitals. But this is not a real physical process, but only a hypothetical model, concept.
In 1694 the German scientist R. Camerarius offered artificially obtain hybrids. And in 1717, the English gardener T. Ferchaydl first crossed different types of carnations. Today intraspecific hybridization of plants is done in order to obtain high-yield, or adapted, for example, frost-resistant varieties. Hybridization and forms one of the varieties of plant breeding techniques. Thus it created a great number of modern crop varieties.
When hybridization when crossedRepresentatives of different species and different genomes association occurs hybrids obtained in most cases does not produce progeny or hybrids produce lower quality. That is why it makes no sense to leave the ripened seeds on a bed of cucumber hybrids, and every time to buy their seeds in a specialty store.
Selection in animal husbandry
In the animal world natural hybridization asintraspecific and distant, also takes place. Mules have been known to man for two thousand years BC. And now a mule and hinny is used in the household as a relatively cheap working animal. However, such hybridization is the species, so hybrids are born male necessarily sterile. Females rarely can give offspring.
Mule - a hybrid of a mare and a donkey. Hybrid resulting from the crossing of horse and donkey is called a hinny. Specially bred mules. They are taller and stronger than mules.
But domestic dog mating with a wolf wasa very common occupation among hunters. Next, the resulting offspring was subjected to further breeding, new dog breeds were created as a result. Today, breeding of domestic animals - an important component of the success of the livestock industry. Hybridization is carried out purposefully, with a focus on the given parameters.