The 19th century laid the perfect foundation for the next century - XX, when science decisively took a step forward.
The discoveries made in the field of physics, chemistry and biology, had a huge impact on the further progress of technological progress.
The main discovery in the field of chemistry for this periodBecame the periodic table, which is used to this day. Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev managed to reduce all the chemical elements known at that time into one scheme, based on their atomic mass. According to legend, the famous chemist saw his table in a dream. Today it is difficult to say whether this is true, but his discovery was genuinely ingenious. The periodic law of chemical elements, on the basis of which the table was made, allowed not only to order the known elements, but also to predict the properties of those that had not yet been discovered.
Many important discoveries during the 19th century wereDone in physics. At this time, most scientists were concerned with the fact that they studied electromagnetic waves. Michael Faraday, observing the motion of a copper wire in a magnetic field, discovered that when an electric line crosses an electric current appears in it. Thus, electromagnetic induction was discovered, which further contributed to the invention of electric motors.
In the second half of the XIX century, the scientist James ClarkMaxwell suggested that there are electromagnetic waves, thanks to which electrical energy is transmitted in space. A couple of decades later, Henry Hertz confirmed the electromagnetic theory of light, proving the existence of such waves. These discoveries allowed Marconi and Popov later to invent radio and became the basis for modern methods of wireless data transmission.
Medicine and biology in this century alsoRapidly developed. The famous chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur, thanks to his research, became the founder of such sciences as immunology and microbiology, and his name was later named the method of heat treatment of products, in which vegetative forms of microorganisms are killed, which allows to extend the shelf life of products - pasteurization.
The French physician Claude Bernard devoted himself to the study of the structure and functioning of endocrine glands. Thanks to this doctor and scientist appeared such a field of medicine as endocrinology.
German microbiologist Robert Koch for his discoveryEven was awarded the Nobel Prize. This scientist was able to identify a tuberculosis bacillus - the causative agent of tuberculosis, which greatly facilitated the fight against this dangerous and at that time widespread disease. Koch also managed to isolate the cholera vibrio and anthrax bacillus.