XIX century laid the perfect foundation for the next century - XX, when science resolutely stepped forward.
The discoveries made in the field of physics, chemistry and biology, have had a tremendous impact on the further course of technical progress.
A key finding in the field of chemistry during this periodIt became the periodic table, which is used to this day. Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev was able to bring all the chemical elements known at that time, in one scheme, on the basis of their atomic mass. According to legend, the famous chemist, saw his table in his sleep. Today difficult to say whether this is true, but its opening was really brilliant. The periodic law of chemical elements on the basis of which, a table will not only streamline the known elements, but also to predict the properties of those that have not yet been opened.
Many important discoveries during the XIX century wasmade in physics. At this time, most of the scientists involved in the fact that studied electromagnetic waves. Michael Faraday, watching the movement of copper wire in a magnetic field, has found that at the intersection of the lines of force in it an electric current. Thus electromagnetic induction has been opened, which further contributed to the invention, electric motors.
In the second half of the XIX century scientist James ClarkMaxwell suggested that there are electromagnetic waves, by which space is transmitted electrical energy. A couple of decades later, Heinrich Hertz confirmed the electromagnetic theory of light, proving the existence of such waves. These discoveries allowed Marconi and Popov later invent radio and became the basis for modern methods of wireless data transmission.
Medicine and biology in this century alsoWe have developed rapidly. The well-known chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur because of his research was the founder of sciences such as immunology and microbiology, and his name was subsequently named a method of heat treatment product that kills when vegetative forms of microorganisms that can extend the shelf life of products - pasteurization.
French physician Claude Bernard devoted himself to the study of the structure and functioning of the endocrine glands. Due to this the doctor and scientist had such a field of medicine, as endocrinology.
German microbiologist Robert Koch for his discoveryShe was even awarded the Nobel Prize. This scientist was able to isolate the tubercle bacillus - causative agent of tuberculosis, which greatly facilitated the fight against this dangerous and at that time a common disease. Also, Koch was able to identify Vibrio cholerae and Bacillus anthracis.