Among the various military and political conflicts of the 20th century, the Cold War stands out. It lasted more than 40 years and covered almost all corners of the globe.
And to understand the history of the second half of the twentieth century, it is necessary to find out what this confrontation represented itself.
Definition of the Cold War
The very expression "cold war" appeared inThe second half of the forties, when it became clear that the contradictions between the recent allies in the war against fascism became insurmountable. This definition described the specific situation of the confrontation between the socialist bloc and the countries of Western democracy led by the United States.
The Cold War was named becauseFull-scale military operations between the armies of the USSR and the United States were not conducted. This confrontation was accompanied by indirect military conflicts outside the territories of the USSR and the US, and the USSR tried to hide the participation of its troops in such military operations.
The question of authorship of the term "cold war" is still debatable among historians.
Important in the Cold War period wasPropaganda, in which all information channels were involved. Another method of fighting opponents was economic rivalry - the USSR and the US expanded their circle of allies by providing significant financial assistance to other states.
The Cold War
The period, which is usually called the Cold War,Began shortly after the end of World War II. Having defeated a common enemy, the USSR and the US lost the need for cooperation, which revived the old contradictions. The United States was frightened by the trend of establishing communist regimes in Europe and in Asia.
As a result, already in the late 1940s EuropeWas divided into two parts - the western part of the continent adopted the so-called Marshall Plan - economic assistance from the US, and the eastern one withdrew into the zone of influence of the USSR. Germany as a result of the contradictions between the former allies was eventually divided into the socialist GDR and the pro-American FRG.
Struggle for influence was also in Africa - in particular, the USSR managed to establish contacts with the Arab states of the Southern Mediterranean, for example, with Egypt.
In Asia, the conflict between the USSR and the US for the worldDomination passed into the military phase. The war in Korea ended with a division of the state into the northern and southern parts. Later the war broke out in Vietnam, which resulted in the defeat of the United States and the establishment of socialist rule in the country. Also under the influence of the USSR was China, but for a short time - although in China the Communist Party remained in power, this state began to pursue an independent policy, entering into confrontation with both the USSR and the United States.
In the early sixties the world as never before wasIs close to a new world war - the Caribbean crisis has begun. In the end, Kennedy and Khrushchev managed to agree on non-aggression, since a conflict of this magnitude with the use of nuclear weapons could lead to the complete destruction of mankind.
In the early eighties the period of "detente" began - the normalization of Soviet-American relations. However, the Cold War ended only with the collapse of the USSR.