There are liberal arts and sciences. The first engaged in human consciousness and related phenomena, and the natural sciences study nature in all its manifestations.
This division is conditional, since man is part of nature, however, many branches of scientific knowledge is called natural: it is physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy and others.
Natural Sciences and Humanities
In the history of science to the XIX century were not allocatednatural and human direction, and preference scientists up to this time gave the natural sciences, that is, the study of natural phenomena, exists objectively. In the XIX century universities begins the separation sciences: humanities, responsible for the study of cultural, social, spiritual, moral, and other human activities, are allocated in a separate area. Everything else falls under the concept of the natural sciences, whose name comes from the Latin word "essence".
History of Natural Sciences began about threethousands of years ago, but the individual disciplines did not exist - all areas of knowledge studied philosophy. Only the division of sciences began at the time of development of navigation: there was a geography and astronomy, these areas were needed while traveling. With the development of technology in the independent section highlights physics and chemistry.
By studying the natural sciences, the principlephilosophical naturalism: it means that the laws of nature have to investigate, without mixing them with the laws of human action and eliminating the human will. Natural has two main objectives: first - to explore and organize data about the world, and the second - use this knowledge for practical purposes for the conquest of nature.
Types of Natural Sciences
There are basic sciences, whichThey exist as separate areas for a long time. This is physics, biology, chemistry, geography, astronomy, geology. But often their scope of research intersect, forming at the junction of the new sciences - biochemistry, geophysics, geochemistry, astrophysics, and others.
Physics - one of the most important natural science, itModern development began with Newton's classical theory of gravitation. Faraday, Maxwell and Ohm continued development of this science, and refers to the XX century revolution in physics, when it became known that Newtonian mechanics is limited and imperfect.
Chemistry began to develop on the basis of alchemy, itModern history begins with 1661, when the book was published Boyle "Chemist-skeptic." Biology has appeared only in the XIX century, when at last it was established the distinction between animate and inanimate matter. Geography was formed during the search of new lands and the development of navigation, geology and allocated in a separate area thanks to Leonardo da Vinci.