Epilepsy - is a disease of the nervous system that is characterized by recurrent seizures, leading to disruption of cognitive, motor and autonomic functions.
The disease is associated with excessive activity of neurons, which ranks provoke an epileptic fit.
Symptoms of epilepsy
The main symptoms of epilepsy - periodicseizures (focal or generalized). When focal seizures occur cramps or numbness in parts of the body, brief visual, auditory or gustatory hallucinations, inability to concentrate, the emergence of feelings of unmotivated fear. Generalized seizures can be convulsive and non-convulsive (Absa). For some time before the attack patients experience anxiety, aggression, feeling unreality, then lose consciousness and struggling in convulsions. Appears skin cyanosis, pupils are fixed, you may receive the foam from the mouth, twitching of muscles are observed. After epileptic seizures usually do not remember anything, complaining of a headache and quickly fall asleep.
Generalized non-convulsive seizures(Absa) appear in childhood and early youth, the sick freeze and look at one point, their minds off for 5-20 seconds. Due to the short duration of such attacks often go unnoticed. In myoclonic seizures the child appear involuntary contractions of the body parts, while maintaining consciousness. With atonic seizures, there is a sharp loss of muscle tone due to this person falls. Symptoms of epilepsy also includes a persistent change in mentality as well as the slowness of mental processes. Patients observed lethargy, psychopathic behavior, aggression, sadism, cruelty. Such people often pedantic and vindictive. With long-term course of the disease may develop epileptic dementia.
The prevalence of epilepsy - 0.3-1% of the adult population.
Causes of epilepsy
Causes of epilepsy are different for menof different ages. In young children, the disease develops as a result of hypoxia - oxygen starvation during pregnancy, as well as due to intrauterine infections (rubella, herpes), congenital brain malformations, cerebral hemorrhage, typical of premature babies. Important role played by genetic predisposition: if one parent has epilepsy, the risk of a sick child is equal to 8% of the light.
Most often epilepsy begins before the age of 20 years.
The development of epilepsy in children and adults canprovoke brain disease, encephalitis, meningitis, arachnoiditis, tumors, trauma, cerebrovascular accidents. The cause of the disease may be a violation of the balance any chemical substances brain. About 2-3% of cases of epilepsy caused by a viral or bacterial infection (cytomegalovirus, rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis). When head injury may develop post-traumatic epilepsy, this depends on the degree of brain damage. In the elderly the most common cause of epilepsy is a stroke, thrombosis, venous sinuses. In rare cases, the causes of this disease are the brain tumor. This can not be epilepsy medication.