Operating System (OS) - a software package,providing the ability to control the computer through a graphical interface, as well as manage and distribute computing processes and resources.
OS allows the user to launch and manage applications work, receive and transmit data, modify computer settings and devices attached to it.
Operating systems for personal computersare: single-tasking and multi-tasking, single-user or multi-user, network and non-network. According to the types of OS interface is divided into command and multi-graphic interface.
Single-tasking operating system able to solveonly one task at a time. Typically, such systems only allow one program to run in native mode. Multitasking operating systems can run multiple programs that work in parallel.
Stand-alone multi-user system is different from the availability of data protection from unauthorized access to other users.
At the moment, the de facto standard OS interface is a graphical multi-window interface that allows you to manage through the windows, pull-down menus, lists of files, etc.
Currently the most widely used and known are the three types of operating systems for personal computers: Microsoft Windows, Linux and Apple Mac Os X.
The family of proprietary operating systemsMicrosoft Windows for static data used by 90% of the existing personal computers. This operating system was created based on the graphics add-in for MS-DOS, which was called Windows. All operating systems of this family are used for process control and computer resources GUI.
Unix-like operating systems, based onwhich is the Linux kernel, popularity and frequency of application are in second place after Microsoft Windows. Each of these systems has its own set of applications that are configured for specific tasks, and extends basically free as a ready distribution.
Linux-Systems is the market leadersmartphones, netbooks, supercomputers, Internet servers, embedded systems and data centers. Linux, ranked third on the home computer market. A striking example of the operating system for a variety of portable digital devices that is based on the Linux, a popular OS Android. The most popular and widely used Linux distributions are considered Mint, Ubuntu and Fedora.
Mac OS - another well-known line of operatingsystems from Apple. This system is installed on all new Macintosh computers. According to the user agreement Mac OS installation of the operating system is allowed only on the computers of Apple. There are versions of the system for personal computers from other manufacturers, but they are part of the functions is disabled and there is increased volatility of the work.
In addition to these well-known and most commonly used systems, there is also a fairly large number of highly specialized applications and operating systems.