Civilization called the community of people with common spiritual values, a similar mentality, stable features of social politics, economy and culture.
To date, there are several basic types of civilizations, different religious, ethno-social, psychological and behavioral ways of life.
Depending on the historical and economic development, development prospects and foundations of mentality are four types of civilizations:
- Natural soobschestva-
- Eastern Civilizations at
- Western Civilizations at
- Modern civilization.
Natural communities are non-progressiveform of existence, people live within the natural cycle, in harmony with nature. Such people exist outside of historical time, they have no concept of the past and the future, for them really only the current time. The meaning of its existence, the company sees in the preservation of traditions, customs and labor practices that do not violate the unity with nature. The constancy of the established order is supported by numerous taboos system.
Natural communities are nomadic orsemi-nomadic life. Spiritual culture they associated with the deification of the forces of nature - water, sun, earth, fire. Intermediaries between the forces of nature and the people are the leaders of communities and priests. The social organization of these communities dominated collectivism: people are living communities, clans, clans, tribes.
East type of civilization
Eastern civilization - is historically the firsttype of civilization, which was formed to 3 millennium BC. e. in ancient India, China, ancient Egypt. Characteristic features of these civilizations are traditionalism, they are focused on the reproduction of the established way of life. In terms of worldview dominates understanding of human unfreedom, predetermination of all actions, caused by forces of nature and the gods. Consciousness and will are not aimed at the knowledge and transformation of the world, and in contemplation, serenity, focus on the spiritual life. Personal principle is not developed, people's life is built on the principles of collectivism. Political organization in Eastern civilizations based on despotism, the economic basis of a state ownership, the main people management method appears compelling.
Western type of civilization
Western type of civilization (Europe and North America) is focused on novelty, knowledge ambient, dynamism, rationality.
Values are the human personality, individualism, autonomy, freedom, equality, private property. In the management preferred democracy.
Western civilization is at a certain stageIt develops into a technological civilization, formed in 15-17 centuries in Europe and spread throughout the world. The main feature of this type of civilization - it is scientific rationality, the value of reason and progress of science and technology through the application of scientific knowledge. The development is accompanied by the increasing dynamics of social relationships, rapid transformation. In just one or two generations there is a change of the former way of life, a new type of personality.
Modern type of civilization
The current state of development led to thethe emergence of a global civilization. Increases the integrity of the international community, there is a single planetary civilization. Globalization is characterized by the internationalization of all social activities, there is a unified system of political, socio-economic, cultural and other ties.