Property can be viewed from a legal and economic standpoint.
The basic forms of ownership are distinguished depending on who owns the property.
Classification of property types
In the most general form, two main types of property are distinguished: private and public. In a market economy, private property is the decisive factor.
In world practice, the three main forms of ownership are called.
Single - in this case all relationshipsProperty are realized by a physical or legal person. An example may be private doctors, farmers, lawyers. This property can also be represented by one person who uses the labor of hired workers.
The affiliate - assumes association in the form ofProperty and capital of a number of individuals or companies for engaging in joint business activities, these are enterprises that are based on share contributions.
Corporate - based on the functioning ofThe capital market, formed through the sale of shares on stock exchanges. Each owner of shares is the owner of a part of the capital. In the cooperative form of ownership, everyone participates in labor and property, but has equal rights in managing and distributing profits.
According to the Russian Constitution (Article 8) in the Russian Federation "private, state, municipal and other forms of property are also recognized and protected."
Public property is also heterogeneous, including collective, state and public property.
Collective property is formed by distributing it among the employees of the enterprise (for example, CJSC).
State property, although it isFormally the property of all members of society, but the state apparatus disposes of it. In an ideal model, it is designed to personify the public interests of all strata of the population and be guided by them in their activities.
Public ownership belongs toDirectly to the people's property, simultaneously to each and all at once. A feature of public ownership is collegial management, where all members of the organization participate in decision-making.
Quite often in a market economy,A mix of different forms of ownership. For example, in the ranks of state property entrepreneurial structures may appear (in Russia - MUPs).
Also, there may be combined forms of ownership. For example, joint ventures, holdings, FIGs, concerns.
Forms of ownership in Russia
State property in RussiaIs classified based on its federative structure. There are federal, regional (property of RF subjects) and municipal (local) property. The federal property includes, among other things, especially important objects - defense and strategic reserves, armament, etc.
In the Russian law, property includes the right to own, dispose and use.
Private property in Russia is mainly represented in the following forms - IP, LLC, CJSC and JSC.
Forms of public property in the Russian Federation include parties, NGOs and public organizations, the church.