With the beginning of the autumn of 1918, the government of the youngThe Soviet Republic decided to turn the country into a single military camp. For this, a special regime was introduced, which allowed to concentrate the most important resources in the hands of the state.
So in Russia, a policy that was called "War Communism" began.
The introduction of military communism in Russia
Activities within the framework of the policy of War CommunismIn general terms were carried out by the spring of 1919 and took shape in the form of three main directions. The main solution was the nationalization of the main industrial enterprises. The second group of measures included the establishment of a centralized supply of the Russian population and the replacement of forced distribution trade through a surplus-appropriation. Also, universal labor service was introduced into practice.
The body that led the countryIn the period of carrying out this policy, became the Council of Workers 'and Peasants' Defense, established in November 1918. The transition to military communism was caused by the outbreak of civil war and intervention by the capitalist powers, which led to devastation. The system itself did not develop immediately, but gradually, in the course of solving priority economic tasks.
The country's leadership set the task toA short period of time to mobilize all the country's resources for defense needs. This was the essence of military communism. Since traditional economic instruments, such as money, the market and material interest in the results of labor, have practically ceased to function, they have been replaced by administrative measures, most of which have been strongly enforced.
Features of the policy of War Communism
The policy of military communism in particular wasIs felt in agriculture. The state has established its monopoly on bread. Special bodies were created with extraordinary powers to purchase food. The so-called food detachments carried out measures to identify and forcibly take surplus grain from the rural population. Products were withdrawn without payment or in exchange for manufactured goods, as the money notes were almost worthless.
During the war communism was bannedThe food trade, which was considered the basis of the bourgeois economy. All food was required to be taken to state bodies. Trade was replaced by a nationwide distribution of products based on the card system and through consumer societies.
In the field of industrial production, the militaryCommunism presupposed the nationalization of enterprises, the management of which was based on the principles of centralization. Extracurricular methods of conducting economic activities were extensively used. The lack of experience among the appointed managers at first often led to a drop in the efficiency of production and adversely affected the development of industry.
This policy, which was carried out until 1921,It is quite possible to designate as a military dictatorship with the use of coercion in the economy. These measures were forced. The young state, suffocating in the fire of civil war and intervention, had neither the time nor the extra resources to systematically and slowly develop economic activities by other methods.