Since the beginning of the autumn of 1918, the Government of the youngSoviet Republic decided to turn the country into a single military camp. For this special regime was introduced, which allowed to concentrate in the hands of the state are the most important resources.
Since the policy began in Russia, called "war communism".
Introduction of War Communism in Russia
Events within the framework of the policy of War Communismin general it has been carried out in the spring of 1919 and took shape in the form of three pillars. The main decision was the nationalization of key industries. The second group of measures included the establishment of centralized procurement of the Russian population and the replacement of trade distribution through forced requisitioning. It was also put into practice labor conscription.
The body, which carried out the leadership of the countryduring the period of the policy, the Council has become the workers and peasants of Defense, established in November 1918. Going to war communism it was caused by the outbreak of civil war and intervention by the capitalist powers, which led to the ruin. The system evolved not once, but gradually, in the course of solving urgent economic problems.
The country's leadership has set a target to the maximumshort time to mobilize all the resources of the country for defense. That was the deep essence of war communism. Since the traditional economic instruments such as money market and financial interest in the outcome of labor, have virtually ceased to act, they were replaced by administrative measures, most of which was of a pronounced coercive.
Features of War Communism
Policy of War Communism was especiallypalpable in agriculture. The state established a monopoly on bread. Special bodies have been created, endowed with extraordinary powers to buy food. The so-called requisition carried out activities to identify and forced withdrawal of the rural population surplus grain. Products seized without payment or in exchange for manufactured goods, because banknotes cost almost nothing.
In the years of war communism was bannedof food, considered the foundation of bourgeois economy. All the food was required to hand over to the state authorities. In place of the trade had to organize country-wide distribution of products based on the card system, and through consumer society.
In the field of industrial production militaryCommunism assumed the nationalization of enterprises, management of which was based on the principles of centralization. Widely used non-economic methods of doing business. Lack of designated managers experience at first often led to a drop in production efficiency and negatively affected the development of the industry.
This policy pursued until 1921,It may well be described as a military dictatorship with the use of coercion in the economy. These measures have been displaced. The young state, suffocate in the fire of civil war and intervention, there was no time, no extra resources to systematically and slowly develop economic activity by other methods.