It is not necessary to study in depth natural-scientific observations to notice how diverse clouds are.
In various textbooks and encyclopedias, you can find quite different descriptions of all kinds of species.
Therefore, it makes sense to refer to the international classification.
The physical meaning of the phenomenon
From the point of view of physics, clouds are productsCondensation of vapor visible in the sky from Earth. These are the smallest droplets of water or ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere, which, when enlarged, drop out in the form of precipitation. Usually, clouds form in the troposphere.
There is an international classification of clouds, inAccording to which they are divided into species and subspecies. Under the conditions of formation, all possible clouds are divided into four categories: convective, wavy, ascending slip and turbulent mixing. The so-called mother-of-pearl and silvery clouds stand apart - they form in the uppermost layers of the stratosphere.
The first category includes clouds of thermalConvection, formed as a result of uneven heating from below, and clouds of dynamic convection that arise as a result of the forced rise of air in front of the mountains.
Waves are called clouds formed atInversions in anticyclones. Clouds of ascending slip are obtained when cold and warm air masses meet. Finally, clouds of turbulent mixing appear when the air rises with an increased wind.
According to the shape of the clouds are also divided into fourCategories, each of which in turn is divided into several subgroups. The first category - clouds of the lower tier: layered, stratocumulus, layered-rain and ruptured-layered. They are located at a height of no more than 2.5 km from the Earth, most of them have a thickness of 200 to 800 m. They are formed for various reasons: due to condensation of steam over warm water bodies, due to air humidification from sediments from overlying clouds, as a result of air cooling Moving over the cold surface of the earth.
The second is clouds of vertical development: cumulus and cumulonimbus. These are dense voluminous and extremely picturesque clouds.
The third is middle-tier clouds: Altocumulus and high-layered. They are formed as a result of air cooling with the slowly rising inclined motion of the air masses. Precipitation is extremely rare.
The fourth is clouds of the upper tier: Cirrus, cirro-cumulus, cirrostratus. As the name suggests, cirrus clouds have a fibrous structure. They are thin, transparent, sometimes have more dense formations in the form of flakes. If precipitation falls out of such clouds - which happens rarely - then they evaporate, not reaching the surface of the Earth.