Each organization should keep a continuous record of the volume of business transactions and monitor their changes.
The simplest way is to keep records with the use of accounts.
Composition and types of accounts
Accounting accounts are more simple and lessLaborious for the implementation of current accounting, than, for example, the balance of the enterprise. They have a fairly simple structure and consist of the following elements - the name and account number, as well as the debit and credit side.
From the point of view of economic meaning, active and passive accounts are distinguished. At the heart of their division are debit, credit and balance assignments.
Active accounts are designed to account for the state ofAnd changes in the company's funds in terms of the types of their formation. They are responsible for its property and debts, active assets reflect the movement of the assets of the enterprise. Active accounts include information about the company's funds that are in bank accounts, warehouses, etc.
On them the initial (reflects the funds at the beginning of the period) and the final balance, as well as the increase in funds is fixed on the debit of the account, the decrease in the funds - on the credit of the account.
Key active accounts include:
- fixed assets (account 01) - this account records the movement of fixed assets of the company-
- Intangible assets (04) - the account is used to account for the movement of intangible assets, as well as investments in R & D-
- materials (10) - is used to account for changes in the volume of materials, raw materials, fuel, semi-finished products, etc.,
- the main production (20) - serves to account for the costs of production-
- goods (41) - is used to account for valuables purchased as goods for resale or processing-
- finished products (43) - is used to account for the volumes of finished products-
- the organization's cash department (50) and settlement accounts (51) - takes into account the movement of the company's money in the cash desk and on the settlement account, respectively.
The difference between active and passive accounts isIn that they have a debit opening balance and a final balance. Another difference is that a debit turnover means an increase in funds, and a credit reduction means a decrease.
Passive accounts keep records of sourcesFormation and movement of enterprise funds. They display operations that change the amount of assets and the composition of the company's debts. They are designed to take into account the company's obligations to partners, employees or the state.
On passive accounts, the initial, final balance, as well as the increase in funds are recorded on the loan. Decrease of households is displayed by debit. Among the main passive accounts are:
- settlements on short-term (66) and long-term loans and borrowings (67) - are used to account for short-term (up to one year) and long-term (more than one year)
- Payroll calculations (70) - used to record information on the payment of salaries, as well as income on shares-
- statutory (80), reserve (86) and additional capital (87) - serves to account for information about the movement of all types of company capital.
There are also active-passive accounts,Reflecting the company's assets and sources of its formation. Active-passive accounts include accounts that take into account the company's calculations with suppliers, founders, contractors, tax deductions, insurance and pension insurance costs.