Very often in different situations people hear the word proton, as well as the nucleus, the neutron, the electron.
Not always students and even adults know where this name came from and when the world learned about such elements.
A lot of time passed beforeScientists agreed that all substances consist of molecules. In time, they even managed to establish that the molecules have atoms in their composition. Then the question arose of what the atom consists of. The atom includes a nucleus and a number of electrons that rotate around the nucleus.
The nucleus of the hydrogen atom
Rutherford, who was one of the pioneersThis section of physics and his whole life worked on the development of this direction, he assumed that the core of any chemical element contains the core of hydrogen, which he managed to confirm with the help of experiments.
These experiments required considerable preparation, and,Conducting experiments, the scientist and his disciples, often sacrificed their health. The experiment was carried out in this way: bombardment of nitrogen atoms occurred with the help of alpha radiation. As a result, different particles were knocked out of the nuclei of nitrogen atoms, which were fixed on the photosensitive film. Because of the weak luminescence, Rutherford had to sit for eight hours in the room without lighting, so that his eyes would better fix the light tracks.
Thanks to these experiments, Rutherford was able to determine in the tracks of knocking out that in the atom of any substance there are exactly atoms of hydrogen and oxygen.
The particle proton was discovered by Rutherford in 1919 atConducting an experiment that proved the presence in any chemical element of the nucleus of the hydrogen atom. The proton is essentially an electron, but with a positive sign, it balances the number of electrons, in such a situation the atom is called neutral or uncharged.
The name proton comes from the word "protos"Which is translated from Greek as the first. Initially, this particle wanted to name the baron from the Greek word "baros", which means gravity. But in the end, it was decided that the "proton" better describes all the qualities of this element. It is important to remember that the mass of the proton is approximately 1840 times greater than the mass of the electron.
The neutron is also one of the elements of the atom. This element was discovered by Chadwick after he had conducted a series of bombardments over the nucleus of the beryllium atom. With such bombardment, elements that did not react to the electric field flied out, so they were eventually called neutrons.