Very often, in different situations, people hear the word of the proton and the nucleus, neutrons, electrons.
Not always, students and even adults know where it went and where the name of the world learned about such elements.
It took a lot of time beforeScientists agree that all substance composed of molecules. Over time, even able to establish that the molecules are composed of atoms. Then the question arose, what it consists of an atom. Atom includes a core and a number of electrons orbiting the nuclei.
The nucleus of the hydrogen atom
Rutherford, who was one of the pioneerthis branch of physics, and all his life he worked on the development of this direction, it is assumed that in the core of any chemical element is the hydrogen nucleus, which was able to be confirmed by the experiments.
These experiments require considerable preparation, and,conducting experiments, the scientist and his students are often bring in their own health sacrifice. The experiment was conducted as follows: with the help of alpha radiation, the bombardment of the nitrogen atoms. As a result, nuclei of nitrogen atoms are beaten out different particles, which were recorded on a photosensitive film. Due to the weak glow Rutherford had eight hours to sit in a room without light, to better eye fixed light traces.
Through these experiments, Rutherford was able to knock on the trail to determine what an atom of any substance there is hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
A particle proton Rutherford discovered in 1919 whenan experiment that proved the existence of any chemical element of the nucleus of the hydrogen atom. Proton essentially an electron, but with a positive sign, it balances the number of electrons in such a situation is called a neutral atom or uncharged.
proton name comes from the word "protos"which is translated from the Greek as the first. Initially, this particle would call the baron from the Greek word "Baros", which means heavy. But in the end it was decided that the "proton" best describes all the qualities of a given element. It is important to remember that the proton mass about 1840 times larger than the mass of the electron.
Neutron is also one of the elements of the atom. This item is opened Chadwick after held a series of bombings over the nucleus of the beryllium atom. With this bombardment flying elements that did not respond to an electric field, so they eventually called neutrons.