Modern country houses on conditions of residing and comfort for a long time already do not concede to the equipped city apartments.
But in order to provide this comfort, it is necessary for their owners to mount and connect systems of internal communications and, first of all, water supply and sewerage.
Water supply and sewerage systems
Plumbing is an engineering system consisting ofSpecial equipment (pumps, storage tanks, automatics, filters) and a pipeline designed to supply private residential buildings with water. Sewage system is necessary in order to remove used water and waste products from the house, if necessary, providing primary cleaning of incoming sewage.
Both plumbing and sewage can beAutonomous or connected to a centralized system, which requires obtaining and issuing additional permits, but it helps to reduce costs. The device of autonomous water supply and sewerage of such permits is not required, but when the house is put into operation, the sewage system will be checked for compliance with SNiP and other technical requirements.
As engineering systems, plumbing and sewerageHave much in common, both these systems are divided into internal and external parts. If we talk about internal networks, we need to understand: the difference lies in the fact that for the water pipe the entry point of the supply pipe into the house is the starting point, and for the sewer the exit point of the outlet pipe is the final one.
Internal system of water supply of a country houseConsists of a starting water-distributing unit, a system of pipes for hot and cold water, a source of hot water (a heater, a boiler or a boiler), supplies to water intake points and consumers (washbasins, sinks, bathtubs, toilets, washing machines, showers, etc.). . Internal sewerage system, except pipes leading from consumers - toilet bowls, includes a sewer riser and a place for removing the outflow pipe from the building.
External water supply networks consist of a systemPipes running outside the building, a source of water supply (well or well), a pumping station. The external sewerage system includes a branch pipe, a septic tank or a treatment plant, sometimes it also includes pumping equipment.
Designing of water supply and sewerage systems
If you use not too complicatedSchemes, design of water supply and sewerage systems for a country house can be performed independently. But in the case when the house is intended for year-round living, has several floors and an extensive network, it is better to entrust the creation of the project to specialists. In the case of the simplest scheme, when the kitchen and toilet room are located side by side, you can use one common sewer riser. When the points of water intake and consumption are located on different floors and in different rooms, a complex scheme of several risers can be used, with bends to different septic tanks.
Before designing it is necessary to determineThe source of water in the house, order an engineering and topographic plan, find out the type of soil and the level of groundwater. In accordance with the needs of your family in the water, which can be determined by SNiP, select the equipment of the capacity that can meet these needs. If the water pressure is insufficient, the project should provide for the use of pumps that supply it.
With a high level of groundwater, you can install a local deep cleaning station or a storage type septic tank on the site.
Installation of piping system
Work on the internal installation of water andThe sewage system is started after the erection of the walls has been completed and the roof has been installed. At the same time, the water meter assembly is installed inside the building just outside the outer wall at the entrance of the outer pipe, it should not be located closer than 1.5 m from the sewerage outlet and gas and heat supply pipes. The diameter of pipes used for domestic water supply depends on how many points of water intake are planned to be placed in the house. Typically, the main line uses pipes 3/4 inches in diameter, and for the distribution pipes -? Inch. Pipes of internal water supply and sewerage are laid at an angle, ensuring the flow of water and its free flow after use.
To ensure the safe functioning of water supply and sewerage systems, when designing and installing them, it is necessary to strictly comply with all norms and requirements of SNiPs.
When installing outdoor systems, it should be noted thatThe depth of laying of pipes should be greater than the depth of freezing of the soil. For ease of maintenance, the pipes can be laid and on the surface, but it is necessary to provide for their insulation.
If the water supply and sewage system areIntersect, the sewage pipes should be located lower than those for which water is to be supplied, the distance between them must be at least 40 cm. In addition, it is necessary to provide also casings in which the pipes are laid in the places of such intersections. When parallel laying of pipes between them should be a distance of at least 1.5 m in the case if their diameter is less than 20 cm.