A competently executed thermal insulation increases the energy efficiency of the house several times.
Under heat insulation is understood and classBuilding materials designed to reduce heat loss in the room, and the process of their installation. With the current steady increase in energy prices, the issue of maximum heat retention in the house is very relevant.
This problem equally affects all types of buildings: administrative buildings, private houses, government institutions, high-rise buildings and even building trailers.
In civilized countries, the method of thermal insulationThe building is laid at the design stage. In our country, we always waited, "when the thunder strikes." That is why the problem of warming the walls has to be solved taking into account all the existing factors inherent in a particular structure. Taking into account the age of the building, its architectural significance, the initial material of the bearing surfaces, as well as the main types of heat loss.
Concerning the latter, it will be interesting to know whatMore than half (60%) of our heat volatilizes through the ventilation system. The remaining 40% share losses through radiation of heat (65-75%), heat exchange (30-20%) and only about 5% fall on windows, doors, roofs, etc.
Aluminum foil and its prototypes successfully delay heat waves, reflecting up to 98%. However, its use for interior finishing is not always possible.
Ventilation losses are solved only with the help ofArtificial ventilation system, with heating of incoming air. These are complex and expensive designs. Losses through heat exchange are solved due to thermal insulation. The main criteria for choosing an insulating material are its thermal conductivity and density.
External and internal thermal insulation
Thermal insulation of the walls of the house is external(Preferably) and internal. There are three ways to perform heat insulation from the outside. "Wet façade" - insulation (usually slabs of mineralized cotton wool or polystyrene foam) is covered with a layer of plaster. "Ventilated" - when an air layer is left between the heater (mineral wool or glass wool) and decorative panels. Layered - the heater is placed inside a wall, constructed as a layered or well-walled masonry. It can also be finished reinforced concrete three-layer blocks or sandwich panels.
When due to cumulative reasons externalHeat insulation is impossible, it is necessary to resort to internal insulation. This forced method has a number of shortcomings. Thermal insulation from the inside reduces the area of the room. The dew point shifts to the internal surface of the facade, which leads to the formation of wall condensation and increased wear of the entire structure. Such a method justifies itself only if it is necessary to eliminate the excess heat loss locally. After laying the vapor barrier, the walls are "stitched" with wall panels.
Mineral cotton wool and extruded polystyrene foam - the most suitable for internal insulation of premises.
Types of modern thermal insulation
According to the type of raw material, the heaters are divided into threeSpecies. Organic (fiberboard, particleboard, peat) are afraid of moisture and prone to fungi, except for products made of gas-filled plastic (foam plastic, foam, foam polystyrene, foam polyethylene). But they both do not tolerate high temperature regimes. Mainly used for interior work. Inorganic insulation (glass wool, mineral wool, cellular concrete, etc.) have high fire resistance and water resistance, are used for interior finishing in wet rooms and for external insulation of walls. Mixed heaters (asbestos cardboard, paper and felt, perlite, etc.) are rarely used, due to their high cost and specific gravity.
Variety of materials
Requirements for heaters externalAnd internal use, are different, due to different operating conditions. Below are the main features of the most common thermal insulation materials.
Glass wool is unpleasant in work (it is pricked andCrumbles) and short-lived (up to 15 years), along with this has a low thermal conductivity, but it is moisture and heat-resistant. Mineral wool (basalt fiber) is superior to fiberglass in all respects and is a good soundproofing.
Polyfoam - inexpensive, soundproof, easy to install, eco-friendly (if there is a certificate of quality) insulation. The service life depends on the brand of the product and can reach 50 years.
Extruded polystyrene is considered oneOf the best for today. Available in the form of thin slabs, easily cut and laid. Durable, high-strength, moisture-proof, vapor-proof, with low thermal conductivity. The price is higher than all the previously listed materials.
Polyurethane foam - a kind of gas-filledPlastics. Used in solid form (poured into blocks) or in the form of sputtering. It is the most durable and expensive heat insulator. It possesses all the characteristics necessary for high-quality thermal insulation: low and unchanged thermal conductivity-resistance to moisture, temperature, deformation, weather conditions, corrosion, ecological compatibility. Suitable for warming all types of household and industrial premises. It has a low weight, therefore it significantly reduces the weight of the finished building.