The philosophers of different epochs considered not aroundworld in general, and philosophical problems through the prism of relations between the world and man. Philosophy - an ongoing dispute between materialism and idealism, agnosticism and epistemological optimism, metaphysics and dialectic nominalism and realism.
To understand the essence of philosophy and knowledge of it as a science is very important to resolve the issue of periodization and classification of its types.
The philosophy of ancient China and ancient India
Perspective of ancient oriental philosophy identifiedcruel caste division and inequality, the impact of zoomorphic mythology. Because of totemism and the cult of the ancestors of this type of philosophy is not enough rationalized. In the philosophy of ancient India decided to allocate the following schools: Orthodox (Yoga, Vedanta, Mimamsa, Sankhya) and unorthodox (Charvaka-Lokayata, Buddhism, Jainism). Most of them are clearly defined concept of karma - the law, which depends entirely on the fate of each person. Another fundamental concept was "Samsara" - a chain of incarnations of living beings in the world. The output of this circuit is moksha, but the determination of its various principles and differing schools of ancient India.
In ancient Chinese philosophy, whichwas formed in the same era as the ancient Indian, stood two trends: the materialist and mystical. The first assumes the presence of the five elements (metal, water, earth, fire, wood), opposite the beginning (yin and yang). To the ancient Chinese philosophy of Confucianism is usually referred, Legalism, itszinistiku, moizm.
Ancient philosophy, formed in ancientGreece and ancient Rome, took place in several stages of development. The first phase - the emergence of philosophy. Since it involves the appearance of the Milesian school, to which belonged Anaximenes, Thales, Anaximander, and their students. The second stage is connected with researches of philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato, Socrates. During the heyday of ancient philosophy was the establishment of the school of the Sophists, atomists, pifagoreistov. The third stage is no longer Greek and Roman. It includes trends such as the skepticism, stoicism, Epicureanism.
The philosophers of antiquity were watching eventsnature, trying to give them an explanation. The "heart" of ancient philosophy teaching can be called cosmocentrism. Man - this is a microcosm that exists within the macrocosm - the nature and the elements. The philosophy of this period is characterized by a unique combination of natural-scientific observations with the aesthetic and mythological consciousness. Ancient philosophy - it is tens of philosophical ideas that were often diametrically opposed to each other. However, it is determined the more recent types of philosophy.
In the era of feudalism, which concernsmedieval philosophy, all human life has been subordinated to the interests of the church and is strictly controlled by it. Religious dogmas zealously defended. The main idea of this type of philosophy is the monotheism of God. No element or the macrocosm is the main force, ruling the world, and only God - the Creator of all things. were several principles The basis of medieval philosophy:
- Creationism (God's creation of the world out of nothing) -
- Providentialism (the history of mankind - invented by God in advance plan for man's salvation) -
- The symbolism (the ability to see the hidden meaning in the everyday) -
- Realism (God is in everything: things, words, thoughts).
Medieval philosophy is usually divided into patristics and scholasticism.
The philosophy of the Renaissance
During the emergence of capitalist relations inWestern Europe (15-16 c.) Begins to develop a new type of philosophy. Now in the center of the universe is not God, but man (anthropocentrism). God is seen as the creator of man depends on it formally, but people almost equal to God, as is able to think and create. The world is seen through the prism of subjective perception of his personality. During the Renaissance philosophy appear first humanistic-pantheistic worldview and later naturalistic deistic. Representatives of the philosophy of this type are N. Cusa, J.. Bruno J.. Pico della Mirandola, Leonardo da Vinci, Copernicus.
The philosophy of the New Age
The development of mathematics and mechanics as a science, the crisisfeudalism, the bourgeois revolution, the development of capitalism - all this has become prerequisites for the emergence of a new type of philosophy, which later would be called the New Age philosophy. It is based on research and experimental study of life and its interpretation. Mind was voted the highest authority, which is subject to all the rest. The philosophers of modern times thought about the rational and sensual form of knowledge, which determined the emergence of two major trends: rationalism and empiricism. Representatives of the New Age philosophy are Francis Bacon, Descartes, Leibniz, Diderot, J.., Berkeley, Hobbes and others.
German classical philosophy
Social transformation of the XVIII century,that took place in Germany, and the French bourgeois revolution became the prerequisite of a new type of philosophy, which is considered to be the ancestor of Immanuel Kant. He studied natural science issues. That Kant belong to the hypothesis that, due to the tides is slowing the Earth's rotation, and that the solar system emerged from the gaseous nebula. Somewhat later, Kant refers to the problems of human cognitive capacity, developing his theory of knowledge and agnosticism in the key priori. According to Kant, the nature does not have the "mind" and is a collection of human ideas about it. That created man knowable (unlike the chaotic and irregular phenomena of the world). Epistemological Kant's concept includes 3 stages of cognition: sensory perception, understanding the area and the area of the mind, the intellect governing activities. Kant's ideas developed IG Fichte, Schelling. By the classical German philosophy include G.Gegelya, Feuerbach and others.
Philosophy Newest time
This type of philosophy developed in the XIX century. The underlying idea was that human knowledge is boundless and that it is the key to the implementation of the ideals of humanism. In the center of philosophy - the cult of reason. Initial principles of classical philosophy were reinterpreted Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, Schopenhauer. Their theories are called neo-classical philosophy. Scientists Baden school suggested that there are historical science and natural science. The first - is the science of the event, the second - the science of law. Really exist, they recognized only the individual knowledge, considering any other abstraction.
An important part of the philosophy of the Newest timeconsiders the work of Karl Marx. Among other things, he formulates the concept of alienation and the principle of the revolutionary elimination of alienation, creation of a communist society, where anyone can work freely. Marx believes that the foundation of knowledge is the practice that leads to the materialist conception of history.
Russian philosophy has always been distinctive as,well as all the cultural and historical development of Russia. It started a little later than in Europe, and initially professed ideas of ancient and Byzantine thought, and then was influenced by Western trends. Russian philosophy is closely linked with religion, artistic and socio-political activities. It focuses not on the epistemological problems, and ontologism (knowledge through intuitive knowledge). Particular importance is given to the Russian philosophy of the human being (anthropocentrism). Istoriosofichny This type of philosophy, since man can not live and think outside of the social and historical problems. Much attention is paid to the Russian philosophy of man's inner world. Representatives of Russian philosophy can be considered G. Nyssa, I. Damascus, K. Turovsky, N. Sora, elder Philotheus V. Tatishchev, MV Lomonosov, G. pan, Radischev, P. Chaadaev, A. Khomyakov, A. Herzen, Chernyshevsky, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Vladimir Solovyov, Vernadsky, N. Berdyaev, Vladimir Lenin, and others.
The philosophy of the last quarter of the XX century
In the last quarter-century philosophers of allthe world turned to the search for a new rationality. There are three turns of philosophy: historical, linguistic and sociological. Inside theological traditions manifest modernist tendencies. Parallel to this, a process of mythmaking reflective treatment products. Philosophers "purified" Marxism of utopianism and direct political interpretations. the last quarter of the XX century philosophy of openness, tolerance, there is no dominant schools and movements as ideological facets erased between them. Part of the philosophy integrates with the humanities and the sciences. Representatives of the philosophy of the last quarter of the XX century are G. Gadamer, Ricoeur, Claude Levi-Strauss, Foucault, Jacques Lacan, Derrida, Richard Rorty.