Philosophers of different epochs did not consider the surroundingThe world as a whole, and the world outlook problem through the prism of the relationship between the world and man. Philosophy is a constant dispute between materialism and idealism, agnosticism and epistemological optimism, metaphysics and dialectics, nominalism and realism.
To understand the essence of philosophy and its knowledge as a science, it is very important to solve the problem of periodization and classification of its types.
Philosophy of Ancient China and Ancient India
The problems of ancient Eastern philosophy were definedCruel caste division and inequality, the influence of zoomorphic mythology. Because of totemism and the cult of ancestors, this type of philosophy is not sufficiently rationalized. In the philosophy of ancient India, it is customary to single out the following schools: orthodox (yoga, vedanta, mimansa, sankhya) and unorthodox (charvaka-lokaya, Buddhism, Jainism). In most of them the concept of karma - the law, on which the destiny of each person depends entirely, is clearly defined. Another basic concept was "samsara" - a chain of incarnations of living beings in the world. The way out of this chain is moksha, but the definition of its various principles and different philosophical schools of ancient India.
In ancient Chinese philosophy, whichFormed in the same era as the ancient Indian, there were two tendencies: materialistic and mystical. The first suggested the presence of five primary elements (metal, water, earth, fire, wood), opposite origins (yang and yin). To the ancient Chinese philosophy is usually referred to as Confucianism, Legism, Izzinistics, Moism.
Ancient philosophy, formed in the AncientGreece and in ancient Rome, has passed through several stages in its development. The first stage is the birth of philosophy. The appearance of the Milesian school, to which Anaximenes, Thales, Anaximander and their disciples belonged, is associated with him. The second stage is connected with the research of such philosophers as Aristotle, Plato, Socrates. During the heyday of ancient philosophy, the formation of the school of sophists, atomists, and Pythagoreans took place. The third stage is no longer Ancient Greek, but Ancient Roman. It includes such currents as skepticism, stoicism, epicureanism.
Philosophers of antiquity observed phenomenaNature, trying to give them an explanation. "Heart" of the teachings of ancient philosophy can be called cosmocentrism. Man is a microcosm that exists within the macrocosm - nature and elements. The philosophy of this period is characterized by a unique combination of natural scientific observations with aesthetic and mythological consciousness. Ancient philosophy - these are dozens of philosophical ideas, which often were directly opposite to each other. However, this is what determined all the later types of philosophy.
In the era of feudalism, to which they relateMedieval philosophy, the whole life of man was subordinated to the interests of the church and was strictly controlled by it. Religious dogmas zealously defended themselves. The main idea of this type of philosophy is the monotheism of God. Not the elements and the macrocosmos are the main force, the ruling world, but only God is the creator of everything. At the heart of medieval philosophy lay several principles:
- Creationism (God's creation of the world from emptiness) -
- Providentialism (the history of mankind - a plan invented by God for the salvation of man) -
- symbolism (the ability to see the hidden meaning in the ordinary) -
- Realism (God exists in everything: in things, words, thoughts).
Medieval philosophy is usually divided into patristic and scholastic.
Philosophy of the Renaissance
In the period of the emergence of capitalist relations inWestern Europe (15-16 centuries) begins to develop a new type of philosophy. Now in the center of the universe is not God, but man (anthropocentrism). God is perceived as a creator, a person depends formally on him, but a person is practically equal to God, for he is able to think and create. The world is seen through the prism of subjective perception of his personality. At the time of the Renaissance philosophy, a humanistic-pantheistic world view first appears, and later naturalistic-deistic. Representatives of this type of philosophy are N. Cuzansky, J. Bruno, J. Pico Dell Mirandola, Leonardo da Vinci, N. Copernicus.
Philosophy of modern times
Development of mathematics and mechanics as sciences, crisisFeudalism, bourgeois revolutions, the emergence of capitalism - all this became prerequisites for the emergence of a new type of philosophy, which later will be called the philosophy of modern times. It is based on the experimental and experimental study of life and its comprehension. Reason was recognized as the highest authority, to which everything else is subordinated. The philosophers of modern times thought about the rational and sensual form of cognition, which determined the emergence of two main currents: rationalism and empiricism. Representatives of the philosophy of modern times are F. Bacon, R. Descartes, G. Leibniz, D. Diderot, J. Berkeley, T. Hobbes and others.
German classical philosophy
Social transformations of the late XVIII century,Which occurred in Germany, as well as the French bourgeois revolution became prerequisites for the emergence of a new type of philosophy, the ancestor of which is generally considered to be Immanuel Kant. He explored questions of natural science. It is to Kant that hypotheses are conjectured that because of tides and ebbs the Earth's rotation slows down and that the solar system emerged from the gas nebula. Somewhat later, Kant addresses the problem of the cognitive possibilities of man, developing his theory of knowledge in the vein of agnosticism and apriorism. According to Kant, nature has no "mind", but represents a set of man's notions of it. That which is created by man is knowable (unlike the chaotic and irregular world of phenomena). Kant's epistemological concept includes three stages of cognition: sensory cognition, the domain of reason and the field of reason that guides the activities of the understanding. Kant's ideas were developed by I.G. Fichte, F. Schelling. German classical philosophy includes G. Hegel, L. Feuerbach and others.
Philosophy of the Newest Time
This type of philosophy developed in the XIX century. The basic idea was that human knowledge is unlimited and it is precisely this that guarantees the realization of the ideals of humanism. In the center of philosophy is the cult of the mind. The original principles of classical philosophy were reconsidered by Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, Schopenhauer. Their theories were called neoclassical philosophy. Scholars of the Baden school suggested that there are historical and natural sciences. The first are the science of events, the second - the science of laws. Actually they recognized only individual cognition, considering any other abstraction.
An important part of the philosophy of the Modern TimesThe works of Karl Marx are considered. Among other things, he formulates the concept of alienation and the principle of revolutionary elimination of alienation, the creation of a communist society, where any person can work freely. Marx is convinced that the basis of knowledge is practice, which leads to a materialist understanding of history.
Russian philosophy has always been original, like,However, the entire cultural and historical development of Russia. It originated somewhat later than in Europe, and initially professed the ideas of ancient and Byzantine thought, and then experienced the influence of Western European currents. Russian philosophy is closely related to religion, artistic creativity and socio-political activity. It is not concentrated on the theoretical and cognitive problems, but on ontologism (knowledge through intuitive cognition). Of particular importance in Russian philosophy is the human being (anthropocentrism). This is a historiosophical type of philosophy, since a person can not live and think outside of socio-historical problems. Much attention in Russian philosophy is paid to the inner world of man. Representatives of Russian philosophy can be considered G. Nyssa, I. Damaskin, K. Turovsky, N. Sorsky, the elder Philotheus, V. Tatishchev, M. Lomonosov, G. Skovoroda, A. Radishchev, P. Chaadayev, A. Khomyakov, A. Herzen, N. Chernyshevsky, F. Dostoyevsky, L. Tolstoy, V. Solovyov, V. Vernadsky, N. Berdyaev, V. Lenin and others.
Philosophy of the last quarter of the 20th century
In the last quarter of the last century philosophers of allThe world turned to the search for a new rationality. There are three trends in the development of philosophy: historical, linguistic and sociological. Within the theological traditions, modernist tendencies are manifested. In parallel, there is a process of reflexive processing of myth-making products. Philosophers "purify" Marxism of utopianism and direct political interpretations. The philosophy of the last quarter of the twentieth century is open, tolerant, it does not have dominant schools and trends, as the ideological lines between them are erased. In part, philosophy is integrated with the humanities and the natural sciences. Representatives of the philosophy of the last quarter of the XX century are G. Gadamer, P. Riker, C. Levi-Strauss, M. Foucault, J. Lacan, J. Derrid, R. Rorty.