The construction of any house begins with the creation of a foundation, but for different conditions, types of houses, financial possibilities, different types of foundation are needed.
Today, the most popular are belt, pile, monolithic and columnar foundations.
Monolithic foundation is a concreteA slab that provides support for the entire surface of the future structure. This is the most expensive and one of the most difficult types of foundation, which has a lot of advantages. Reinforced concrete slab withstands heavy loads, so it is installed under high stone buildings. Its "floating" capabilities make it possible to protect the house from displacement or subsidence during the punching of soils. The depth of the slab laying does not play a role in the ability to withstand loads, it is usually laid half a meter deep, at least ten centimeters. Under the monolithic foundation it is necessary to make a pillow of gravel. It is very important to reinforce the plate well with ribbed products that adhere well to concrete.
Tape foundation reminds monolithic, butThe concrete is poured not under the entire area of the house, but under the outer and inner bearing walls. Trenches of the foundation pit are excavated, a formwork is installed, which sets the shape and reduces the material consumption, reinforcement is installed and concrete is poured. As a result, a rather thin tape is obtained, the consumption of concrete for which is several times less than when installing the plate.
The lumber that was used for the assembly of the formwork can be removed and used in construction.
Tape foundation is much more economical than plate,But also quite expensive. In addition, it is complicated in the installation: it is necessary to make the formwork qualitatively, correctly calculate the number of reinforcement and the dimensions of its frame and fill the tape with concrete in one step, without interrupting the process, otherwise the foundation will lose its properties. This type withstands severe loads and is suitable for all types of houses.
The pile foundation, one of the new types, consists ofOf several bored piles, which are packed to a depth below the freezing level of the earth. This is a very reliable design, it can be used in any conditions and is most often used when all other types are not suitable, for example, in marshy or peaty soils. Piles are quickly installed, such a foundation can be made at any time of the year. And its cost is very democratic - almost half that of a tape type.
Piles allow you to ventilate the underground part of the house, make it possible to build a basement floor.
The pillar foundation is one of the most economical,It allows you to significantly reduce costs in the first phase of building a house. This type is a series of load-bearing elements - pillars of various shapes and from different materials - which are placed under the area of the house with a certain pitch. Poles are made of blocks, bricks, concrete. The pillar foundations are suitable for light wooden houses, as well as bathhouses, outbuildings, garages and other small structures. They are good on soils with deep freezing, but are not suitable for mobile weakly bearing soils. Pillars do not allow to create a full-fledged basement or socle. Another advantage of this type of foundation is the simplicity in the construction, with this task both inexperienced and inexperienced builders successfully cope.